Livelihood and Carbon Management by Indigenous People in Southern Himalayas

  • Dil Kumar Limbu
  • Basanta Kumar Rai
  • Krishna Kumar Rai


The two important anthropogenic drivers for carbon cycle in the Himalayas are land use (rangeland, shifting cultivation and community-based forest management) and fuel use (biomass energy). Shifting cultivation, though illegal in the southern Himalayan regions of India, Bhutan and Nepal, is still widely practiced by indigenous people for their livelihood. This chapter reviews carbon dioxide and methane management in the southern Himalayan region, in particular, Nepal, India and Bhutan. The review will be limited to land and fuel use, as these are the most important anthropometric drivers of the carbon cycle and reduce livelihood security in the Himalayas.


Southern Himalayas Indigenous people Livelihood security Carbon management Biomass energy 


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Dil Kumar Limbu
    • 1
  • Basanta Kumar Rai
    • 1
  • Krishna Kumar Rai
    • 2
  1. 1.Central Campus of TechnologyTribhuvan UniversityDharanNepal
  2. 2.Mahendra Multiple CampusTribhuvan UniversityDharanNepal

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