Advertisement

The Arctic in International Affairs

  • Heather Exner-PirotEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

It is only in the last 20 years that the Arctic has become a subject, and not merely an object, in international affairs. Although its strategic location means that its role as a potential military theater will persist, the region has evolved its own unique characteristics, and has carved out its own place in international affairs. Chief among these are the region’s focus on marine and environmental issues, as well as its privileging of Indigenous, scientific, and other non-state actors. The way the Arctic has evolved as a political region has had a strong impact on states’ behavior there, and it is overwhelmingly a cooperative place. This chapter seeks to assess the Arctic in international affairs and the factors that have contributed to its development as a political region.

References

  1. Arctic Council. 2018. Observers. Accessed September 2, 2018. www.arctic-council.org/index.php/en/about-us/arctic-council/observers.
  2. Brigham, Lawson, Heather Exner-Pirot, Lassi Heininen, and Joel Plouffe. 2016. Introduction. In Arctic Yearbook 2016, ed. Lassi Heininen, Heather Exner-Pirot, and Joel Plouffe, 9–15. Akureyri: Northern Research Forum.Google Scholar
  3. Buzan, Barry, and Ole Wæver. 2003. Regions and Powers: The Structure of International Security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Buzan, Barry, Ole Waever, and Jaap de Wilde. 1998. Security: A New Framework for Analysis. Boulder, CO: Lynne Reiner Publishers.Google Scholar
  5. Deshayes, Pierre-Henry. 2009. “Arctic Threats and Challenges from Climate Change,” Agence France-Presse, as Quoted in Michael Byers (Summer 2014). “Does Canada Need Submarines?”. Canadian Military Journal 14 (3): 7–14.Google Scholar
  6. Exner-Pirot, Heather. 2016. Canada’s Arctic Council Chairmanship (2013–2015): A Post-Mortem. Canadian Foreign Policy Journal 22 (1): 84–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Exner-Pirot, Heather, and Robert Murray. 2017. Regional Order in the Arctic: Negotiated Exceptionalism. Politik 20 (3): 47–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Flanagan, Thomas. 2013, August 21. Arctic Symbolism, Harper Stagecraft. National Post. Accessed September 5, 2018. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/arctic-symbolism-harper-stagecraft/article13876049/.
  9. Heininen, L. 2012. State of the Arctic Strategies and Policies – A Summary. In Arctic Yearbook 2012, 2–47. Akureyri: Northern Research Forum.Google Scholar
  10. Huebert, R.N., H. Exner-Pirot, A. Lajeunesse, and J. Gulledge. 2012. Climate Change & International Security: The Arctic as a Bellweather. Arlington, VA: Center for Climate and Energy Solutions.Google Scholar
  11. Regehr, Ernie, and Micelle Jackett. 2017, January. Circumpolar Facilities of the Arctic Five. The Simons Foundation. Accessed July 24, 2018. http://thesimonsfoundation.ca/sites/default/files/Circumpolar%20Military%20Facilities%20of%20the%20Arctic%20Five%20-%20updated%20January%202017_1.pdf.
  12. Stephens, Hugh. 2016, May. The Opening of the Northern Sea Routes: The Implications for Global Shipping and for Canada’s Relations with Asia. Canadian Global Affairs Institute. SPP Research Papers 9(19). Accessed July 24, 2018. https://www.policyschool.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/northern-sea-routes-stephens.pdf.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Observatoire de la politique et la securite de l’Arctique, CIRRICQQuebecCanada

Personalised recommendations