• Hermann Kopetz


Any system in the real world—a natural system—is characterized by an immense number of different properties. Some of these properties, e.g., radioactivity, cannot even be perceived with human sense organs. The cognitive apparatus of humans cannot handle the totality of all these properties. This is the reason why humans construct models of natural systems that focus on only those properties that are relevant for a given purpose and forget about the rest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hermann Kopetz
    • 1
  1. 1.Vienna University of TechnologyBaden-SiegenfeldAustria

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