Units of Concentration and the Salt Factor

  • Michalakis Savva


Twelve different units of concentration that are commonly used in pharmacy, chemistry, and biology, plus the salt factor, are defined both descriptively and mathematically in this chapter. Conversions of concentration units are demonstrated in great detail with practice examples. A vast number of practice exercises extracted from the area of protein research and other ingenious uses of drugs in hospitals to treat patients unresponsive to conventional treatments were created for you to become proficient in concentration unit conversions. Also, practice problems describing prescriptions that can be used to treat diseases such as psoriasis, arthritis, cholesterolemia, skin hyperpigmentation, and acne will keep you locked on a very interesting text that relates units of concentration with formulation creativity, pharmacological activity and toxicity.


Concentration Density Salt factor Solute Solvent Solution Mass per unit volume Percent by weight Percent weight per volume Percent by volume Molarity Molality Normality Ratio strength Parts per million Parts per billion Mole fraction Activity 

Supplementary material

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Lesson 4.1

Units of concentration in pharmaceutical sciences. Description: (a) Differences between the concepts of density and concentration. (b) Define solute, solvent and solution. (c) Define various concentration units used in pharmaceutical sciences (MP4 889172 kb)

Lesson 4.2

Applications of units of concentration. Description: (a) Definitions of concentration units is used to solve selected compounding exercises with emphasis on specific gravity of solute and specific gravity of solution, and conversion of w/v to w/w or vice versa (MP4 708333 kb)

Lesson 4.3

Salt factor. Description: (a) Define the concept of salt factor. (b) Understand when to use and when not to use the salt factor. (c) Use the salt factor to normalize drug dosages (MP4 518517 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michalakis Savva
    • 1
  1. 1.School of PharmacySouth UniversitySavannahUSA

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