Advertisement

Age of Changes: Threat of Climate Change and Its Meaning for Security

  • Salla Kalliojärvi
Chapter

Abstract

Climate change has been increasingly defined as a threat to the security of a wide range of referent objects from individual to the planet and humanity as a whole. Climate change is often seen as the macro-driver of a wide range of other threats that are accelerated by the extent of which the climate continues to change. By adding pressure on the institutional capacities of states, decreasing the quality, quantity and access to vital natural resources, and by triggering large scale migratory movements, climate change is assumed to increasingly foment instability and conflicts, which in turn are seen to deteriorate global sustainable development that forms the very heart of mitigation and adaptation efforts. Regardless of this growing and often alarmist security framing of climate change, ambitious and effective climate policies are still lacking. Traditionally security is conceived as a matter of high politics that is associated with the core values and survival of the state and the legitimization of emergency measures. Military force or balance of power politics and containment have long been seen as the most crucial ways to control insecurity. The threat of climate change is characterized with a new kind of uncertainty and complexity that cannot be successfully secured against through military power and containment. Building on poststructuralist theories, this chapter theoretically analyses how the meaning of security is constructed through hegemonic struggle, and how the interpretations of climate change as a threat or a multiplier of threats affect the understanding of security.

Keywords

Climate change Security politics Environmental security Critical security studies Poststructuralism The United Nations Security Council 

References

  1. Aradau, Claudia, and Rens van Munster. 2017. Poststructuralist Approaches to Security. In Routledge Handbook of Security Studies, 2nd ed., ed. Myriam Dunn Cavelty and Thierry Balzacq, 157–177. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  2. Baylis, John. 2014. International and Global Security. In The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations, 6th ed., ed. John Baylis, Steve Smith, and Patricia Owens, 229–242. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bellamy, Alex. 2010. Humanitarian Intervention. In Contemporary Security Studies, 2nd ed., ed. Alan Collins, 359–377. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bettini, Giovanni. 2013. (In)convenient Convergences: ‘Climate Refugees’, Apocalyptic Discourses and the Depoliticization of Climate-Induced Migration. In In Interpretive Approaches to Global Climate Governance: (De)constructing the Greenhouse, 1st ed., ed. Chris Methmann, Delf Rothe, and Benjamin Stephan, 201–223. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  5. Butler, Judith. 1992. Contingent Foundations: Feminism and the Question of “Postmodernism”. In Feminists Theorize the Political, ed. Judith Butler and Joan W. Scott. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  6. Campbell, David. 1998. Writing Security, 2nd ed. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  7. Cavelty, Myriam Dunn, and Thierry Balzacq (eds.). 2017. Routledge Handbook of Security Studies, 2nd ed. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Chandler, David. 2012. Resilience and Human Security: The Post-interventionist Paradigm. Security Dialogue 43 (3): 213–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chandler, David. 2015. Reconceptualizing International Intervention: Statebuilding, ‘Organic Processes’ and the Limits of Causal Knowledge. Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding 9 (1): 70–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cousins, Stephanie. 2013. UN Security Council: Playing a Role in the International Climate Change Regime? Global Change, Peace & Security 25 (2): 191–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Crawford, Beverly, and Ronnie Lipschutz. 1997. Discourses of War: Security and the Case of Yugoslavia. In Critical Security Studies: Concepts and Cases, ed. Keith Krause and Michel Williams, 149–185. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. Google Scholar
  12. Dalby, Simon. 2013. Climate Change: New Dimensions of Environmental Security. The RUSI Journal 158 (3): 34–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dalby, Simon. 2015. Climate Geopolitics: Securing the Global Economy. International Politics 52: 426–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Der Derian, James, and Michael Shapiro (eds.). 1989. International/Intertextual Relations. Lexington: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  15. Detraz, Nicole, and Michele Betsill. 2009. Climate Change and Environmental Security: For Whom the Discourse Shifts. International Studies Perspectives 10 (3): 303–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Deudney, Daniel. 1990. The Case Against Linking Environmental Degradation and National Security. Millennium: Journal of International Studies 19 (3): 461–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dillon, Michael. 1996. Politics of Security: Towards a Political Philosophy of Continental Thought. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. Duffield, Mark. 2006. Human Security: Linking Development and Security in an Age of Terror. In New Interfaces Between Security and Development: Changing Concepts and Approaches, 11–38. Bonn: German Development Institute, Study No. 13.Google Scholar
  19. Duffield, Mark. 2007. Development, Security and Unending War: Governing the World of Peoples. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  20. Duffield, Mark, and Nicholas Waddell. 2006. Securing Humans in a Dangerous World. International Politics 43 (1): 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Elden, Stuart. 2006. Contingent Sovereignty, Territorial Integrity and the Sanctity of Borders. SAIS Review XXVI (1): 11–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fidler, David P. 1996. Caught Between Traditions: The Security Council in Philosophical Conundrum. Articles by Maurer Faculty. Paper 745. http://www.repository.law.indiana.edu/facpub/745.
  23. Fierke, Karin. 2015. Critical Approaches to International Security. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  24. Gavas, Mikaela, Christine Hackenesch, Svea Koch, James Mackie, and Simon Maxwell. 2016. The European Union’s Global Strategy: Putting Sustainable Development at the Heart of EU External Action. European Think Tanks Group.Google Scholar
  25. Gilmore, Elisabeth A. 2017. Introduction to Special Issue: Disciplinary Perspectives on Climate Change and Conflict. Current Climate Change Reports 3: 193–199.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40641-017-0081-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Griggs, Steven, and David Howarth. 2014. Post-structuralism, Social Movements and Citizen Politics. In Handbook of Political Citizenship and Social Movements, ed. H.-A. van der Heijden, 279–308. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  27. Hansen, Lene. 2006. Security as Practice: Discourse Analysis and the Bosnian War. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  28. Hartmann, Betsy. 2010. Rethinking Climate Refugees and Climate Conflict: Rhetoric, Reality and the Politics of Policy Discourse. Journal of International Development 22 (2): 233–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hartmann, Betsy. 2013. Climate Chains: Neo-Malthusianism, Militarism and Migration. In Interpretive Approaches to Global Climate Governance (De)Constructing the Greenhouse, ed. Chris Methmann, Delf Rothe, and Benjamin Stephan, 152–172. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  30. Heininen, Lassi. 2012. Security in the Arctic. In Polar Law Textbook II, ed. Natalia Loukacheva. Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers. Google Scholar
  31. Heininen, Lassi. 2016. Security of the Global Arctic in Transformation—Potential for Changes in Problem Definition. In Future Security of the Global Arctic, ed. Lassi Heininen, 12–34. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  32. Howarth, David. 2000. Discourse. Buckingham: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Huebert, R., H. Exner-Pirot, A. Lajeunesse, and J. Gulledge. 2012. Climate Change & International Security: The Arctic as a Bellwether. Arlington, VA: Center for Climate and Energy Solutions. Available at http://www.c2es.org/publications/climate-change-international-arctic-security/.
  34. Huysmans, Jef, Andrew Dobson, and Raja Prokhovnik. 2006. The Politics of Protection: Sites of Insecurity and Political Agency. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  35. Jørgensen, Marianne, and Louise Phillips. 2002. Discourse Analysis as Theory and Method. London, Thousand Oaks, and New Delhi: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Käkönen, Jyrki (ed.). 1994. Green Security or Militarized Environment. Aldershot: Dartmouth.Google Scholar
  37. Krahmann, Elke. 2003. Conceptualizing Security Governance. Cooperation and Conflict: Journal of the Nordic International Studies Association 38 (1): 5–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Laclau, Ernesto. 1996. Emancipation(s). London: Verso.Google Scholar
  39. Laclau, Ernesto. 2005. On Populist Reason. London and New York: Verso.Google Scholar
  40. Laclau, Ernesto. 2014. The Rhetorical Foundations of Society. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  41. Laclau, Ernesto, and Chantal Mouffe. 2001/1985. Hegemony and Socialist Strategy: Towards a Radical Democratic Politics. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  42. Lilly, Damian. 2000. The Privatization of Security and Peacebuilding: A Framework for Action. London: International Alert.Google Scholar
  43. Luszczuk, Michal. 2016. Military Cooperation and Enhanced Arctic Security in the Context of Climate Change and Growing Global Interest in the Arctic. In Future Security of the Global Arctic, ed. Lassi Heininen, 35–54. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  44. Mandel, Robert. 2002. Armies Without States: The Privatization of Security. London: Lynne Rinner.Google Scholar
  45. McDonald, Matt. 2002. Human Security and the Construction of Security. Global Society 16 (3): 277–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. McDonald, Matt. 2018. Climate Change and Security: Towards Ecological Security? International Theory 10 (2): 153–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mearsheimer, John. 1990. Back to the Future: Instability in Europe After the Cold War. International Security 15 (4): 5–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Methmann, Chris, and Delf Rothe. 2013. Apocalypse Now! From Exceptional Rhetoric to Risk Management in Global Climate Politics. In Interpretive Approaches to Global Climate Governance: (De-)Constructing the Greenhouse, ed. Chris Methmann, Delf Rothe, and Benjamin Stephan, 105–121. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nabers, Dirk. 2015. A Poststructuralist Discourse Theory of Global Politics. Basingstoke, Hampshire and New York: Palgrave Macmillan. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Oels, Angela. 2012. From ‘Securitization’ of Climate Change to ‘Climatization’ of the Security Field: Comparing Three Theoretical Perspectives. In Climate Change, Human Security and Violent Conflict: Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace, vol. 8, ed. Jurgen Scheffran, Michael Brzoska, Hans Günter Brauch, Peter Link, and Janpeter Schilling, 185–205. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  51. Oels, Angela. 2016. Resisting the Climate Security Discourse Restoring “the Political” in Climate Change Politics. In Reframing Climate Change Constructing Ecological Geopolitics, ed. Shannon O’Lear and Simon Dalby, 246–265. Abingdon and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  52. Palosaari, Teemu. 2012. The Amazing Race: On Resources, Conflict and Cooperation in the Arctic. In Nordia Geographical Publications Yearbook 2011, ed. Lassi Heininen and R. Rouge-Oikarinen. Oulu: The Geographical Society of Northern Finland. Google Scholar
  53. Palosaari, Teemu, and Nina Tynkkynen. 2015. Arctic Securitization and Climate Change. In Handbook of the Politics of the Arctic, ed. Leif Jensen and Geir Hønneland. Cheltenham and Northampton: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  54. Piiparinen, Touko. 2012. Sovereignty-Building: Three Images of Positive Sovereignty Projected Through Responsibility to Protect. Global Change, Peace & Security 24 (3): 405–424.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14781158.2012.716033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rothe, Delf. 2016. Securitizing Global Warming: A Climate of Complexity. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  56. Scott, Shirley. 2015. Implications of Climate Change for the UN Security Council. International Affairs 91 (5): 1317–1333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Shepherd, Laura, and J. Weldes. 2008. Security: The State (of) Being Free from Danger? In Globalization and Environmental Challenges: Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace, vol. 3, ed. H.G. Brauch et al., 529–536. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  58. Stern, Maria, and Joakim Öjendal. 2010. Mapping the Security—Development Nexus: Conflict, Complexity, Cacophony, Convergence? Security Dialogue 41 (1): 5–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Stripple, Johannes. 2012. The Subject of Security in a Warming World. The Brown Journal of World Affairs 18 (2): 181–194.Google Scholar
  60. Torfing, Jacob. 2005. Discourse Theory: Achievements, Arguments, and Challenges. In Discourse Theory in European Politics Identity, Policy and Governance, ed. David Howarth and Jacob Torfing, 1–32. Basingstoke, Hampshire and New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Google Scholar
  61. Trombetta, Maria Julia. 2008. Environmental Security and Climate Change: Analysing the Discourse. Cambridge Review of International Affairs 21 (4): 585–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Weiss, Thomas. 2011. Thinking About Global Governance: Why People and Ideas Matter . Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar

United Nations Documents

  1. UN. April 5, 2007. S/2007/186 Letter Dated 5 April 2007 from the Permanent Representative of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the United Nations Addressed to the President of the Security Council.Google Scholar
  2. UN. July 20, 2011a. S/PV.6587 Security Council Open Debate on Impact of Climate Change.Google Scholar
  3. UN. July 20, 2011b. S/PRST/2011/15 Statement by the President of the Security Council.Google Scholar
  4. UN. July 30, 2015. S/PV.7499 Security Council Open Debate on Peace and Security Challenges Facing Small Island Developing States.Google Scholar
  5. UN. July 11, 2018. S/PV.8307 Security Council Open Debate on Understanding and Addressing Climate-Related Security Risks.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Salla Kalliojärvi
    • 1
  1. 1.University of LaplandRovaniemiFinland

Personalised recommendations