Advertisement

Veto Players and Stakeholders: Religion in Polish and American Politics

  • Maciej PotzEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

A model of religion-inspired political activity—taking into account internal organization of a religious actor, with its members, resources, leadership structures and level of ideological cohesion; external political opportunity structure offering access points but also restricting political options of churches; and the strategies it chooses—is applied to the analysis of Polish and American religious actors in terms of their potential impact on the political process. The Polish Catholic Church has been described as a veto player, an actor able to block the change of the status quo. This is demonstrated with the case study on the making of the Polish constitution, where the Church succeeded in blocking regulations potentially inhibiting its public presence. Conversely, American religious actors have been described as stakeholders, interested and involved in public policymaking, but—due to a variety of differences in social structure, architecture of the political system and political culture—often unable to exert their influence in a direct, causally demonstrable way the Polish Church has been.

Keywords

American religion Polish Catholic Church Polish political system Stakeholder US political system Veto player 

References

  1. Annuarium Statisticum Ecclesiae in Polonia AD 2018. (2018). Warszawa: ISKK. Retrieved December 30, 2018, from http://iskk.pl/images/stories/Instytut/dokumenty/Annuarium_Statisticum_2018.pdf.
  2. Bass, H. F., & Rozell, M. J. (2009). Religion and the U.S. Presidency. In C. Smidt, L. Kellstedt, & J. Guth (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Religion and American Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Borecki, P. (2008). Geneza modelu stosunków państwo-kościół w Konstytucji RP. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Sejmowe.Google Scholar
  4. Casanova, J. (1994). Public Religions in the Modern World. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chapp, C. (2013). Religious Rhetoric and American Politics: The Endurance of Civil Religion in Electoral Campaigns. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Concordat between the Holy See and the Republic of Poland (signed 1993, ratified 1998). Retrieved January 3, 2019, from http://www.concordatwatch.eu/showtopic.php?org_id=931&kb_header_id=1331.
  7. Cześnik, M. (2009). Partycypacja wyborcza Polaków. Warszawa: Instytut Spraw Publicznych.Google Scholar
  8. Evans, M. (2014). Religion and Political Decision-Making. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 53(1), 145–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fink, S. (2009). Churches as Societal Veto Players: Religious Influence in Actor-Centred Theories of Policy-Making. West European Politics, 32(1), 77–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gądecki, S. (2015). Więź z Chrystusem. Retrieved January 3, 2019, from https://episkopat.pl/homilia-abp-stanislawa-gadeckiego-wygloszona-podczas-uroczystosci-nmp-kolowej-polski.
  11. Gaudium et Spes. (1965). Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World.Google Scholar
  12. Göçmen, I. (2014). Religion, Politics and Social Assistance in Turkey. The Rise of Religiously Motivated Associations. Journal of European Social Policy, 24(1), 92–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gowin, J. (1995). Kościół po komunizmie. Kraków: Znak.Google Scholar
  14. Guth, J., Kellstedt, L. A., Smidt, C. E., & Green, J. C. (2006). Religious Influences in the 2004 Presidential Election. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 36(2), 223–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hatfield, M. (2006). Ignore the Rumors – Campaigning from the Pulpit Is Okay: Thinking Past the Symbolism of Section501(C)(3). Notre Dame Journal Of Law, Ethics & Public Policy, 20, 125–173.Google Scholar
  16. Haynes, J. (2006). Christianity and Politics. In J. Haynes (Ed.), The Politics of Religion. A Survey. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  17. Informacja o wynikach kontroli wykonania budżetu państwa w 2017 r. w części 43 – Wyznania religijne oraz mniejszości narodowe i etniczne. (2018). Warszawa: Najwyższa Izba Kontroli.Google Scholar
  18. Jelen, T. (2010). To Serve God and Mammon: Church–State Relations in American Politics. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Kamiński, T. (2018). Faith-based organizations jako aktorzy społeczeństwa obywatelskiego i partnerzy władz publicznych. In M. Marczewska-Rytko & D. Maj (Eds.), Politologia religii. Lublin: UMCS.Google Scholar
  20. Kanon wiary Polaków. (2015). Warszawa: CBOS. Retrieved December 31, 2018, from https://www.cbos.pl/SPISKOM.POL/2015/K_029_15.PDF.
  21. Kim są wyborcy, czyli społeczno-demograficzne portrety największych potencjalnych elektoratów. (2015). Warszawa: CBOS. Retrieved January 2, 2019, from https://www.cbos.pl/SPISKOM.POL/2015/K_141_15.PDF.
  22. Komunikat sekretariatu Prymasa Polski po spotkaniu Kard. J. Glempa z Przewodniczącym NSZZ „Solidarność”, in: Kościoły i organizacje światopoglądowe o nowej polskiej konstytucji. Wybór materiałów źródłowych z lat 1988–1997. (2012). eds. P. Borecki, C. Janik, Warszawa: Elipsa.Google Scholar
  23. Komunikat z 288. zebrania plenarnego Konferencji Episkopatu Polski (1997), in: Kościoły i organizacje światopoglądowe o nowej polskiej konstytucji. Wybór materiałów źródłowych z lat 1988–1997. (2012). eds. P. Borecki, C. Janik, Warszawa: Elipsa.Google Scholar
  24. Kościoły i organizacje światopoglądowe o nowej polskiej konstytucji. Wybór materiałów źródłowych z lat 1988–1997. (2012). eds. P. Borecki, C. Janik, Warszawa: Elipsa.Google Scholar
  25. Kowalczyk, K. (2012). Partie i ugrupowania parlamentarne wobec Kościoła katolickiego w Polsce w latach 1989–2011. Szczecin: Zapol.Google Scholar
  26. Łabędź, K. (2016). Poglądy społeczeństwa polskiego dotyczące obecności religii i Kościoła w sferze publicznej. In R. Michalak (Ed.), Implementacja zasad religijnych w sferze politycznej. Zielona Góra: Morpho.Google Scholar
  27. Łazarewicz, C. (2010). Co Kościół ma. Polityka, October 2010. Retrieved February 27, 2019, from https://www.polityka.pl/tygodnikpolityka/kraj/1509032,1,przeswietlamy-majatek-kosciola.read.
  28. List bp. Alojzego Orszulika do Profesora Janusza Trzcińskiego. (1991). in: Kościoły i organizacje światopoglądowe o nowej polskiej konstytucji. Wybór materiałów źródłowych z lat 1988–1997 (2012), eds. P. Borecki, C. Janik, Warszawa: Elipsa.Google Scholar
  29. List zastępcy Sekretarza Episkopatu Polski do Hanny Suchockiej. (1990). in: Kościoły i organizacje światopoglądowe o nowej polskiej konstytucji. Wybór materiałów źródłowych z lat 1988–1997 (2012), eds. P. Borecki, C. Janik, Warszawa: Elipsa.Google Scholar
  30. Mahoney, J., Kimball, E., & Koivu, K. L. (2009). The Logic of Historical Explanation in the Social Sciences. Comparative Political Studies, 42(1), 114–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McTague, J., & Layman, G. (2009). Religion, Parties, and Voting Behavior: A Political Explanation of Religious Influence. In C. Smidt, L. Kellstedt, & J. Guth (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Religion and American Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Memory of John Paul II. (2018). Warszawa: CBOS. Retrieved December 31, 2018, from https://www.cbos.pl/EN/publications/reports/2018/135_18.pdf.
  33. Mohseni, P., & Wilcox, C. (2016). Organizing Politics: Religion and Political Parties in Comparative Perspective. In J. Haynes (Ed.), Routledge Handbook of Religion and Politics. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  34. Noll, M. (2008). God and Race in American Politics: A Short History. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nowakowska, A. (1995, February 24). Referendum jako straszak. Gazeta Wyborcza, 47.Google Scholar
  36. O’Connell, D. (2015). God Wills It. Presidents and the Political Use of Religion. New Brunswick and London: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  37. Olson, L. (2009). Clergy and American Politics. In C. Smidt, L. Kellstedt, & J. Guth (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Religion and American Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Phillips, K. (2006). American Theocracy. The Peril and Politics of Radical Religion, Oil, and Borrowed Money in the 21 st Century. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  39. Potz, M. (2016). A Contemporary Religious Political Movement: LDS Church’s Nation-wide Political Campaigns. Annales UMCS. Sectio K; Politologia, 23(1).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Potz, M. (2019a). Religion in Public Life. In S. P. Ramet, K. Ringdal, & K. Dośpiał-Borysiak (Eds.), Civic and Uncivic Values in Poland. Value Transformation, Education and Culture. Budapest and New York: CEU Press.Google Scholar
  41. Potz, M. (2019b). Political Agency and Violence: Understanding the Causes of the Mountain Meadows Massacre. Religion, State and Society, 47(3), 290–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ramet, P. (2006). Thy Will Be Done: The Catholic Church and Politics in Poland Since 1989. In T. A. Byrnes & P. J. Katzenstein (Eds.), Religion in an Expanding Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Ramet, S. P. (2017). The Catholic Church in Polish History. From 966 to the Present. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Relacja z wystąpienia przedstawiciela episkopatu Polski bp. Orszulika podczas posiedzenia Komisji Konstytucyjnej Senatu. (1990). in: Kościoły i organizacje światopoglądowe o nowej polskiej konstytucji. Wybór materiałów źródłowych z lat 1988–1997 (2012), eds. P. Borecki, C. Janik, Warszawa: Elipsa.Google Scholar
  45. Religia i Kościół w przestrzeni publicznej. (2013). Warszawa: CBOS.Google Scholar
  46. Religijność Polaków i ocena sytuacji Kościoła katolickiego. (2018). Warszawa: CBOS. Retrieved December 31, 2018, from https://www.cbos.pl/SPISKOM.POL/2018/K_147_18.PDF.
  47. Schmitt, S., Euchner, E.-M., & Preidel, C. (2013). Regulating Prostitution and Same-sex Marriage in Italy and Spain: The Interplay of Political and Societal Veto Players in two Catholic Societies. Journal of European Public Policy, 20(3), 425–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Secler, B. (2016). Religia i religijność a poziom frekwencji wyborczej. In R. Michalak (Ed.), Implementacja zasad religijnych w sferze politycznej. Zielona Góra: Morpho.Google Scholar
  49. Sider, R., & Unruh, H. (2004). Typology of Religious Characteristics of Social Service and Educational Organizations and Programs. Non-Profit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 33(1), 46–61.Google Scholar
  50. Smidt, C., Kellsted, L., & Guth, J. (2009). The Role of Religion in American Politics: Explanatory Theories and Associated Analytical and Measurement Issues. In C. E. Smidt, L. A. Kellstedt, & J. L. Guth (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Religion and American Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Stawrowski, Z. (2007). Aksjologia i duch Konstytucji III Rzeczypospolitej. Przegląd Sejmowy, 4(81), 49–64.Google Scholar
  52. Stecker, F. (2011). The Podium, the Pulpit and the Republicans. How Presidential Candidates Use Religious Language in American Political Debate. Santa Barbara: Praeger.Google Scholar
  53. Szczerbiak, A. (2006). Patterns of Party Politics in Post-1989 Poland. In S. Jungerstam-Mulders (Ed.), Post-communist EU Member States: Parties and Party System. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  54. Tsebelis, G. (2011). Veto Players: How Political Institutions Work. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Verba, S., Schlozman, K., Brady, H., & Nie, N. H. (1993). Race, Ethnicity and Political Resources: Participation in the United States. British Journal of Political Science, 23(4), 453–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wahlbeck, P. (2009). Religion and Judicial Politics. In C. Smidt, L. Kellstedt, & J. Guth (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Religion and American Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Warner, C. (2001). Confessions of an Interest Group: The Catholic Church and Political Parties in Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Wielhouwer, P. (2009). Religion and American Political Participation. In C. Smidt, L. Kellstedt, & J. Guth (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Religion and American Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Wuthnow, R. (1988). The Restructuring of American Religion. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Wystąpienie przedstawiciela episkopatu Polski, bp. Tadeusza Pieronka, podczas posiedzenia Komisji Konstytucyjnej Senatu RP. (1990). In: Kościoły i organizacje światopoglądowe o nowej polskiej konstytucji. Wybór materiałów źródłowych z lat 1988–1997 (2012), eds. P. Borecki, C. Janik, Warszawa: Elipsa.Google Scholar
  61. Zasady moralne a religia. (2017). Warszawa: CBOS. Retrieved January 1, 2019, from https://www.cbos.pl/SPISKOM.POL/2017/K_004_17.PDF.
  62. Zmiany w zakresie podstawowych wskaźników religijności Polaków po śmierci Jana Pawła II. (2015). Warszawa: CBOS.Google Scholar
  63. Znaczenie religii w życiu Polaków. (2006). Warszawa: CBOS. Retrieved January 2, 2019, from https://www.cbos.pl/SPISKOM.POL/2006/K_081_06.PDF.
  64. Zuba, K. (2010). The Political Strategies of the Catholic Church in Poland. Religion, State & Society, 38(2), 115–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of International and Political StudiesUniversity of ŁódźŁódźPoland

Personalised recommendations