This chapter describes the realism/anti-realism debate, first in general (concerning realism about the external world), then more specifically, concerning aesthetics and the philosophy of art (including the philosophy of literature). My aims are twofold. Firstly, I aim to introduce the discussion of aesthetic realism. Secondly, I aim to counteract scepticism about the very significance of the ontological debate by doing what the sceptic claims to be impossible, namely providing a description of the issue which is acceptable to both realists and anti-realists about the aesthetic. Aesthetic realism and anti-realism are briefly characterized.