Prognostic Factors: Patient Related Factors

  • Khadija Amine
  • Wafa El Kholti
  • Jamila Kissa


Although gingival recessions are usually diagnosed in individuals with good oral hygiene (see Chap.  1), there are limited data to support the impact of plaque control on the healing process and on the maintenance of gingival margin stability after root coverage procedures [1]. Zucchelli and de Sanctis [2] reported in their 5-year longitudinal clinical study that the lack of patient compliance with a supportive oral care regimen was significantly correlated to the recurrence of gingival recession. An optimal plaque control is desirable in order to maintain the clinical outcomes achieved by root coverage surgery.


  1. 1.
    de Sanctis M, Clementini M. Flap approaches in plastic periodontal and implant surgery: critical elements in design and execution. J Clin Periodontol. 2014;41(Suppl. 15):S108–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zucchelli G, de Sanctis M. Long-term outcome following treatment of multiple Miller class I and II recession defects in esthetic areas of the mouth. J Periodontol. 2005;76:2286–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Khocht A, Simon G, Person P, Denepitiya JL. Gingival recession in relation to history of hard toothbrush use. J Periodontol. 1993;64:900–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rajapakse PS, McCracken GI, Gwynnett E, Steen ND, Guentsch A, Heasman PA. Does tooth brushing influence the development and progression of non-inflammatory gingival recession? A systematic review. J Clin Periodontol. 2007;34:1046–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sanz M, Bäumer A, Buduneli N, Dommisch H, Farina R, Kononen E, Linden G, Meyle J, Preshaw PM, Quirynen M, Roldan S, Sanchez N, Sculean A, Slot DE, Trombelli L, West N, Winkel E. Effect of professional mechanical plaque removal on secondary prevention of periodontitis and the complications of gingival and periodontal preventive measures–Consensus report of group 4 of the 11th European Workshop on Periodontology on Effective Prevention of Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases. J Clin Periodontol. 2015;42(Suppl. 16):S214–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Heasman PA, Holliday R, Bryant A, Preshaw PM. Evidence for the occurrence of gingival recession and non-carious cervical lesions as a consequence of traumatic toothbrushing. J Clin Periodontol. 2015;42(Suppl. 16):S237–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wennstrom JL, Zucchelli G. Increased gingival dimensions. A significant factor for successful outcome of root coverage procedures? A 2-year prospective clinical study. J Clin Periodontol. 1996;23:770–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pini Prato G, Rotundo R, Franceschi D, Cairo F, Cortellini P, Nieri M. Fourteen-year outcomes of coronally advanced flap for root coverage: follow-up from a randomized trial. J Clin Periodontol. 2011;38:715–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zucchelli G, Clauser C, de Sanctis M, Cal- andriello M. Mucogingival versus guided tissue regeneration procedures in the treatment of deep recession type defects. J Periodontol. 1998;69:138–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Trombelli L, Scabbia A. Healing response of gingival recession defects following guided tissue regeneration procedures in smokers and non-smokers. J Clin Periodontol. 1997;24(8):529–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Martins AG, Andia DC, Sallum AW, Sallum EA, Casati MZ, Nociti Junior FH. Smoking may affect root coverage outcomes: a prospective clinical study in humans. J Periodontol. 2004;75:586–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Erley KJ, Swiec GD, Herold R, Bisch FC, Peacock ME. Gingival recession treatment with connective tissue grafts in smokers and non- smokers. J Periodontol. 2006;77(7):1148–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chamrone L, Chambrone D, Pustiglioni FE, Chambrone LA, Lima LA. The influence of tobacco smoking on the out- comes achieved by root-coverage procedures: a systematic review. J Am Dent Assoc. 2009;140:294–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chambrone L, Pannuti CM, Tu YK, Chambrone LA. Evidence-based periodontal plastic surgery. II. An individual data meta-analysis for evaluating factors in achieving complete root coverage. J Periodontol. 2012;83:477–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Andia DC, Martins AG, Casati MZ, Sallum EA, Nociti FH. Root coverage outcome may be affected by heavy smoking: a 2-year follow-up study. J Periodontol. 2008;79(4):647–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Khadija Amine
    • 1
  • Wafa El Kholti
    • 1
  • Jamila Kissa
    • 1
  1. 1.Periodontics DepartmentUniversity of Hassan IICasablancaMorocco

Personalised recommendations