Drivers of Managerial Behaviour

  • Zlatko NedelkoEmail author
  • Vojko Potocan


The main purpose of this chapter is to consider the role and outline the drivers of managers’ behaviour for organizations. First, the chapter presents some possible approaches to empirically examining and measuring these drivers, and reveals a promising concept for values-culture-ethics-norms drivers. Studies have revealed fundamental behaviour drivers which we have utilized as building blocks in our study. Second, based on the abundant literature about behavioural drivers, we suggest a theoretical framework for broader consideration of drivers and correlations between drivers and managers’ behaviour. This framework will offer a broader sense of outlined drivers in the literature, with which we want to provide a comprehensive overview of important internal and external impacts on managers’ behaviour. Finally, the chapter discusses the changing role of important behaviour drivers in the current global environment. The discussion focuses on the role and importance of personal values in organizations in Slovenia and Austria, which will provide necessary additional knowledge for further discussion in subsequent chapters. In terms of theoretical applications, this chapter presents additional information for further study of managers’ behaviour drivers and their specifics in organizations which operate under various different circumstances. Practical applications focus on improvement of understanding of behaviour drivers, implementation of drivers in managers’ beliefs-values-attitudes-behaviour chains and recognition of drivers’ various characteristics under different circumstances.


Drivers of behaviour Culture Organizational culture National culture Organizational values Ethics Norms 


  1. Allport, G. (1935). Attitudes. In C. Murchison (Ed.), Handbook of Social Psychology (pp. 798–844). Worcester, MA: Clark University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Allport, G. W. (1961). Pattern and Growth in Personality. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
  3. Bakacsi, G., Sandor, T., Karacsonyi, A., & Imrek, V. (2002). Eastern European Cluster: Tradition and Transition. Journal of World Business, 37(1), 69–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bardi, A., & Goodwin, R. (2011). The Dual Route to Value Change: Individual Processes and Cultural Moderatos. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42, 271–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Becker, G., & McClintock, C. (1967). Value: Behavioural Decision Theory. Annual Review of Psychology, 18(1), 239–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bloom, B. S. (1964). Stability and Change in Human Characteristics. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  7. Bos-Nehles, A., Renkema, M., & Jenssen, M. (2017). HRM and Innovative Work Behaviour: A Systematic Literature Review. Personnel Review, 46(7), 1228–1253.Google Scholar
  8. Brenkert, G. (2010). The Limits and Prospects of Business Ethics. Business Ethics Quarterly, 20(4), 703–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brenkert, G., & Beauchamp, T. (Eds.). (2009). The Oxford Handbook of Business Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bundy, J., Pfarrer, M., Short, C., & Coombs, T. (2017). Crises and Crisis Management: Integration, Interpretation, and Research Development. Journal of Management, 43(6), 1661–1692.Google Scholar
  11. Cavanagh, G. (2005). American Business Values. New York: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  12. Certo, S., & Certo, T. (2012). Modern Management Concepts and Skills. New York: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  13. Constant, D., Keisler, S., & Sproull, L. (1994). What’s Mine Is Ours, or Is It? A Study of Attitudes about Information Sharing. Information Systems Research, 5(4), 400–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cooper, C., & Argyris, C. (1998). The Concise Blackwell Encyclopedia of Management. Malden: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  15. Daft, R. (2018). Management. Boston: Cengage Learning.Google Scholar
  16. De George, R. (1987). The Status of Business Ethics - Past and Future. Journal of Business Ethics, 6(3), 201–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Deal, T., & Kennedy, A. (1982). Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  18. Eagly, A., & Chaiken, S. (1998). Attitude Structure and Function. In T. Gilbert, S. Fisk, & G. Lindsey (Eds.), Handbook of Social Psychology (pp. 269–322). New York: McGowan-Hill.Google Scholar
  19. Elsbach, K., & Stigliani, I. (2018). Design Thinking and Organizational Culture: A Review and Framework for Future Research. Journal of Management, 44(6), 2274–2306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. England, G. (1975). The Manager and His Values. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Publishing Co..Google Scholar
  21. Epstein, S. (1983). Aggregation and Beyond: Some Basic Issues on the Prediction of Behaviour. Journal of Personality, 51(3), 360–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Faris, E. (1928). Attitudes and Behaviour. American Journal of Sociology, 34(2), 271–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fazio, R., Powell, M., & Herr, P. (1983). Toward a Process Model of the Attitude-Behaviour Relation: Accessing One’s Attitude upon Mere Observation of the Attitude Object. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 723–735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fisher, R., & Schwartz, S. (2010). Whence Differences in Value Priorities? Individual, Cultural, or Artifactual Sources. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42(7), 1127–1144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Furrer, O., Egri, C. P., Ralston, D. A., Danis, W., Reynaud, E., Naoumova, I., … Furrer-Perrinjaquet, A. (2010). Attitudes Toward Corporate Responsibilities in Western Europe and in Central and East Europe. Management International Review, 50(3), 379–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gelfand, M. J., Aycan, Z., Erez, M., & Leung, K. (2017). Cross-cultural Industrial Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behaviour: A Hundred-Year Journey. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(3), 514–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gibb, S., & Burns, C. (2018). Organizational Values: Positive, Ambivalent and Negative Interrelations in Work Organizations. Journal of Human Values, 24(2), 116–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Glavas, A. (2016). Corporate Social Responsibility and Organizational Psychology: An Integrative Review. Frontiers of Psychology, 7, 144. Retrieved from Scholar
  29. Graves, C. (1970). Levels of Existence: An Open System Theory of Values. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 10(2), 131–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hellriegel, F., Slocum, J., & Woodman, R. (1986). Management. Nashville: South-Western Publishing.Google Scholar
  31. Hellriegel, D., Slocum, J. W., & Woodman, R. W. (1998). Management. Cincinnati: South-Western Publishing.Google Scholar
  32. Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s Consequences. Comparing Values, Behaviours, Institutions, and Organizations across Nations. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.Google Scholar
  33. House, R., Hanges, P., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P., & Gupta, V. (2004). Culture, Leadership, and Organizations: The Globe Study of 62 Societies. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  34. Inkson, K. (2005). Effects of Changing Economic Conditions on Managerial Job Changes and Careers. British Journal of Management, 6(3), 183–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jones, E., & Gerard, H. (1967). Social Psychology. New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  36. Katz, D. (1960). The Functional Approach to the Study of Attitudes. Public Opinion Quarterly, 24(2), 163–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kemmelmeier, M., Krol, G., & Hun Kim, Y. (2002). Values, Economics, and Pro-environmental Attitudes in 22 Societies. Cross-Cultural Research, 36(3), 256–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Krech, D., & Crutchfield, R. (1948). Theory and Problems of Social Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kwan, L., Leung, A., & Liou, S. (2018). Culture, Creativity, and Innovation. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 49(2), 165–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lang, R., Szabo, E., Catana, G. A., Konecna, Z., & Skalova, P. (2013). Beyond Participation? - Leadership Ideals of Future Managers from Central and East European Countries. Journal for East European Management Studies, 18(4), 482–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Leslie, H., Banks, G., Prinsen, G., Scheyvens, R., & Stewart-Withers, R. (2018). Complexities of Development Management in the 2020s: Aligning Values, Skills and Competencies in Development Studies. Asia-Pacific Viewpoint, 59(2), 235–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lufthans, F., & Youssef, C. (2007). Emerging Positive Organizational Behaviour. Journal of Management, 33(3), 321–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Minton, E., & Khale, L. (2014). Belief Systems, Religion, and Behavioural Economics. New York: Business Expert Press.Google Scholar
  44. Mullins, L. (2016). Management and Organisational Behaviour. New York: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  45. Nadler, D., & Tushman, M. (1980). A Model for Diagnosing Organizational Behaviour. Organizational Dynamics, 9(2), 35–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Nestor, P., & Schutt, R. (2019). Research Methods in Psychology: Investigating Human Behaviour. SAGE: Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  47. Petty, R., & Cacioppo, J. (2018). Attitudes and Persuasion: Classic and Contemporary Approaches. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Posner, B., & Munson, M. (1979). The Importance of Values in Understanding Organizational Behaviour. Human Resource Management, 18(3), 9–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Posner, B., & Schmidt, W. (1992). Values and the American Manager - An Update Updated. California Management Review, 34(3), 80–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Potocan, V., Mulej, M., & Nedelko, Z. (2013). The Influence of Employees’ Ethical Behaviour on Enterprises’ Social Responsibility. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 26(6), 497–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Potocan, V., & Nedelko, Z. (2014). Management Innovativeness: A Case of Slovenian Small and Medium Enterprises. Transformations in Business & Economics, 13(1), 41–59.Google Scholar
  52. Ralston, D., Egri, C., Furrer, O., Kuo, M.-H., Li, Y., Wangenheim, F., … Weber, M. (2014). Societal-Level Versus Individual-Level Predictions of Ethical Behaviour: A 48-Society Study of Collectivism and Individualism. Journal of Business Ethics, 122(2), 283–306.Google Scholar
  53. Ralston, D., Egri, C. P., Reynaud, E., Srinivasan, N., Furrer, O., Brock, D., … Wallace, A. (2011). A Twenty-First Century Assessment of Values across the Global Workforce. Journal of Business Ethics, 104(1), 1–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ralston, D., Pounder, J., Lo, C., Wong, Y., Egri, C., & Stauffer, J. (2006). Stability and Change in Managerial Work Values: A Longitudinal Study of China, Hong Kong and the USA. Management and Organization Review, 2(1), 67–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Robbins, S., & Judge, T. (2016). Organizational Behaviour. Harlow: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  56. Rokeach, M. (1968). Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values: A Theory of Organization and Change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  57. Rokeach, M. (1973). The Nature of Human Values. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  58. Schwartz, S. (1992). Universals in the Content and Structure of Values: Theoretical Advances and Empirical Tests in 20 Countries. In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 25, pp. 1–65). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  59. Schwartz, S. (1994). Are There Universal Aspects in the Content and Structure of Values? Journal of Social Issues, 50(4), 19–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Schwartz, S., Cieciuch, J., Vecchione, M., Davidov, E., Fischer, R., Beierlein, C., … Konty, M. (2012). Refining the Theory of Basic Individual Values. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103(4), 663–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Smith, P., Peterson, M., & Schwartz, S. (2002). Cultural Values, Sources of Guidance, and Their Relevance to Managerial Behaviour: A 47-Nation Study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 33(2), 188–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Stern, P., Dietz, T., Abel, T., Guagnano, G., & Kalof, L. (1999). A Value-Belief-Norm Theory of Support for Social Movement: The Case of Environmentalism. Human Ecology Review, 6, 81–97.Google Scholar
  63. Strauss, W., & Howe, N. (1997). The Fourth Turning: An American Prophecy - What the Cycles of History Tell Us about America’s Next Rendezvous with Destiny. New York: Three Rivers Press.Google Scholar
  64. Trevino, L., Den Nieuwenboer, N., & Kish-Gephart, J. (2014). (Un)Ethical Behaviour in Organizations. Annual Review of Psychology, 65(1), 635–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Tsang, E., & Kwan, K. (1999). Replication and Theory Development in Organization Science: A Critical Realist Perspective. Academy of Management Review, 24, 759–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Vecchione, M., Schwartz, S., Alessandri, G., During, A., Castellani, V., & Giovanni Capra, M. (2016). Stability and Change of Basic Personal Values in Early Adulthood: An 8-Year Longitudinal Study. Journal of Research in Personality, 63, 111–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Vogel, T., Bohner, G., & Wanke, M. (2016). Attitudes and Attitude Change. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wang, H., Tong, L., Takeuchi, R., & George, G. (2016). Corporate Social Responsibility: An Overview and New Research Directions. Academy of Management Journal, 59(2), 534–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Whetten, D., Felin, T., & King, B. (2009). The Practice of Theory Borrowing in Organization Studies: Current Issues and Future Directions. Journal of Management, 35, 537–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wood, W. (2000). Attitude Change: Persuasion and Social Influence. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 539–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wray-Lake, L., Flanagan, C., & Osgood, W. (2010). Examining Trends in Adolescent Environmental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Behaviours across Three Decades. Environment & Behaviour, 42(1), 3–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Economics and BusinessUniversity of MariborMariborSlovenia

Personalised recommendations