Ordinary and Activated Bone Substitutes

  • Ilya Y. Bozo
  • R. V. Deev
  • A. Y. Drobyshev
  • A. A. Isaev


Bone substitutes are highly demanded in clinical practice for grafting of bone defects and alveolar ridge augmentation. Based on the analysis of modern groups of bone substitutes, particularities of their composition, mechanisms of biological effects, and therapeutic indications, applicable classification was proposed which consisted of separation of these materials to “ordinary” and “activated.” The main differential criterion is a presence of biologically active components in the material which are standardized by qualitative and quantitative parameters: growth factors, cells, or gene constructs encoding growth factors. The pronounced osteoinductive and (or) osteogenic properties of activated bone substitutes allow to draw upon their efficacy in substitution of large bone defects.


Bone substitutes Bone grafting Osteoinduction Tissue-engineered bone grafts Growth factors Gene-activated matrices 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ilya Y. Bozo
    • 1
    • 2
  • R. V. Deev
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • A. Y. Drobyshev
    • 5
  • A. A. Isaev
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Maxillofacial SurgeryA.I. Burnazyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of FMBA of RussiaMoscowRussia
  2. 2.“Histograft”, LLCMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Department of General PathologyI.P. Pavlov Ryazan State Medical UniversityRyazanRussia
  4. 4.PJSC “Human Stem Cells Institute”MoscowRussia
  5. 5.Department of Maxillofacial and Plastic SurgeryA.I. Evdokimov Moscow State University of Medicine and DentistryMoscowRussia

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