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The Mouse Hippocampus

  • Hannsjörg SchröderEmail author
  • Natasha Moser
  • Stefan Huggenberger
Chapter
  • 102 Downloads

Abstract

The hippocampus is the phylogenetically second oldest part of the telencephalon after the olfactory system (Chap. 14). The rodent hippocampus is a continuous structure that changes its cranial dorsal position to a lateroventral location in the more caudal parts where it eventually reaches the ventral surface of the brain. The human hippocampus has a basal position in the telencephalon but, regarding its fine structure, is very much alike that of the rodent hippocampus. By contrast to the neocortex (Chap. 10), the hippocampus consists mainly of three layers and can roughly be subdivided into the dentate gyrus and the Cornu Ammonis. It is part of a functionally very important circuit for the short-term and long-term memory starting in the neighboring entorhinal cortex via the dentate gyrus and Cornu Ammonis back to the entorhinal cortex (classical trisynaptic pathway). The disruption of this circuit by decline of neurons of the entorhinal cortex is a hallmark of human Alzheimer’s disease which leads to a loss of the short-term and long-term memory. In addition to the memory function, the hippocampus subserves spatiotemporal orientation.

Keywords

Hippocampus Archicortex Dentate gyrus Cornu Ammonis Entorhinal cortex Short-term memory Long-term memory Spatial orientation 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hannsjörg Schröder
    • 1
    Email author
  • Natasha Moser
    • 1
  • Stefan Huggenberger
    • 2
  1. 1.Department II of AnatomyUniversity Hospital CologneCologneGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Anatomy and Clinical MorphologyUniversity of Witten/HerdeckeWittenGermany

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