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Efficiency of Soil, Plant and Microbes for Healthy Plant Immunity and Sustainable Agricultural System

  • Gufran Ahmad
  • Yasar Nishat
  • Mohammad Haris
  • Mohammad Danish
  • Touseef Hussain
Chapter

Abstract

For the vital functioning of soil ecosystem, microbes have always been the superior force in driving many processes. These microorganisms are the main key facilitators in nutrient cycles associated with plant root system by delivering nutrients and suppressing pathogens, thereby sustaining plant health. Their amazing activity and biochemical versatility, especially the roots of growing plants, show great potential for beneficial microorganisms, for the development of biotechnology applications, for the control of plants of wild plants and for increased food crops. In this chapter we review the existing literature on the interaction between plants, microorganisms and soil. The rhizosphere is an arena where the complex rhizosphere community, which includes both microflora and microfauna, communicates with pathogens and influences the outcome of pathogen infection. A number of microorganisms are advantageous to the plants which include nitrogen-fixing bacteria, endo- and ectomycorrhizal fungi and plant growth-promoting bacteria and fungi. Some of the activities include complex systems of communication, in case of symbiosis such as arbuscular microscopic symbiosis, many millions of years old, while others include exudates from the root and other products of the rhizodeposition which are used as substrates for soil microorganisms. Since degradation of organic compounds in the rhizosphere is encouraged by the release of root expressions and enzymes in plants, therefore, biodegradation plays an important role, depending on the contact between the soil and the contaminated substances surrounding the plants. There is a considerable potential in the expanded area of microorganisms to replace synthetic biological chemistry. Since microbial activities are an important and sensitive component of soil, they are also good indicators of soil disorder and ecosystem. Still, an extended use of microorganisms for bioindication purposes and sustainable means of soil management depends on advances in understanding microbial ecology, especially on a field scale. As a result, to enhance the regenerative capacity of soil ecosystems for sustainable agriculture, it is best to understand how to increase the dynamics and potential of soil biology. This will allow new applications of knowledge to address the challenges of pest and diseases and increase global food production and sustainable farming.

Keywords

Rhizosphere Plant heath Bioremediation 

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gufran Ahmad
    • 1
  • Yasar Nishat
    • 1
  • Mohammad Haris
    • 1
  • Mohammad Danish
    • 1
  • Touseef Hussain
    • 1
  1. 1.Deptartment of BotanyAligarh Muslim UniversityAligarhIndia

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