Advertisement

Applicability of Traditional Environmental Criminological Theories in Developing Country Contexts

  • Adegbola OjoEmail author
  • Oluwole Ojewale
Chapter

Abstract

Theoretical foundations play important roles in the study of urban crime. It is against this milieu that this chapter discusses the suitability of mainstream Euro-American theories for explaining crime patterns in developing countries. The chapter starts by introducing the reader to a range of benefits of criminological theories and focuses on the main environmental and ecological theories. Following this, the chapter answers questions relating to how the mainstream theories might be deployed in experimental settings; how the performance of the theories can be evaluated and how the efficacy of urban crime interventions can be monitored on the basis of these theories. The chapter closes by making a case for the development of a new wave of ecological theories that take cognizance of the peculiarities of crime in African urban settings.

References

  1. Adedeji, J. A., Fadamiro, J. A., & Adedeji, Y. M. D. (2016). Residential Fencing and House Gating: An Overview of Social Inequality and Urban Insecurity in Ilorin, Nigeria. Cities, 52, 123–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for a General Strain Theory of Crime and Delinquency. Criminology, 30(1), 47–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agnew, R. (2001). Building on the Foundation of General Strain Theory: Specifying the Types of Strain Most Likely to Lead to Crime and Delinquency. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 38(4), 319–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Agnew, R. (2006). Pressured into Crime: An Overview of General Strain Theory. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Ajayi, I. A., Ekundayo, H. T., & Osalusi, F. M. (2010). Menace of Cultism in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions: The Way Out. The Anthropologist, 12(3), 155–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Akers, R. L., & Sellers, C. S. (2016). Criminological Theories: Introduction, Evaluation, and Application (7th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Akers, R. L., Krohn, M. D., Lanza-Kaduce, L., & Radosevich, M. (1979). Social Learning and Deviant Behaviour: A Specific Test of a General Theory. American Sociological Review, 44(4), 636–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Alder, C. (1985). Theories of Female Delinquency. In A. Borrowski & J. Murray (Eds.), Juvenile Delinquency in Australia. Sydney: Methuen.Google Scholar
  9. Alder, C. (2000). Young Women and Juvenile Justice. In C. Alder (Ed.), Juvenile Crime and Juvenile Justice. Canberra: Research and Public Policy Series, Australian Institute of Criminology.Google Scholar
  10. Armitage, R. (2013). Crime Prevention through Housing Design: Police and Practice. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Atu, J. E., Ofong, R. A., & Eja, E. I. (2013). Urban Sprawl Effects on Biodiversity in Peripheral Agricultural Lands in Calabar, Nigeria. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 3(7), 219–231.Google Scholar
  12. Barr, R., & Pease, K. (1990). Crime Placement, Displacement and Deflection. In M. Tonry & N. Morris (Eds.), Crime and Justice: A Review of Research (Vol. 12). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  13. Beauchamp, T. L., & Childress, J. F. (2012). Principles of Biomedical Ethics (7th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Becker, H. S. (1963). Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  15. Becker, G. S. (1968). Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach. Journal of Political Economy, 76(2), 169–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bernard, T. J. (1981). The Distinction Between Conflict and Radical Criminology. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 72(1), 362–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bloch, R., Fox, S., Monroy, J., & Ojo, A. (2015). Urbanisation and Urban Expansion in Nigeria. Urbanisation Research Nigeria (URN) Research Report. London: ICF International.Google Scholar
  18. Bowers, K., Johnson, S., Guerette, R. T., Summers, L., & Poynton, S. (2011). Spatial Displacement and Diffusion of Benefits Among Geographically Focused Policing Initiatives: A Meta-Analytical Review. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 7(4), 347–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brantingham, P. L., & Brantingham, P. J. (1993). Nodes, Paths and Edges: Considerations on the Complexity of Crime and the Physical Environment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 13(1), 3–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brantingham, P. L., & Brantingham, P. J. (1995). Criminality of Place: Crime Generators and Crime Attractors. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 3(3), 5–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brantingham, P., & Brantingham, P. (2008). Crime Pattern Theory. In R. Wortley & L. Mazerolle (Eds.), Environmental Criminology and Crime Analysis. London: Willan Publishing.Google Scholar
  22. Chambliss, W. J., & Seidman, R. B. (1982). Law, Order and Power (2nd ed.). Reading, MA: Longman Higher Education.Google Scholar
  23. Clarke, R. V. (1983). Situational Crime Prevention: Its Theoretical Basis and Practical Scope. Crime and Justice: An Annual Review of Research, 4, 225–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Clarke, R. V. (2012). Opportunity Makes the Thief. Really? And So What? Crime Science, 1(3), 1–9.Google Scholar
  25. Clarke, R. V., & Cornish, D. B. (1985). Modeling Offenders’ Decisions: A Framework for Research and Policy. In M. Tonry & N. Morris (Eds.), Crime and Justice (Vol. 6). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  26. Clarke, R. V., & Felson, M. (Eds.). (1993). Routine Activity and Rationale Choice. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  27. Cohen, S. (1995). Deviance and Moral Panics. In S. Caffrey (Ed.), The Sociology of Crime and Deviance: Selected Issues. Kent: Greenwich University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Cohen, L. E., & Felson, M. (1979). Social Change and Crime Rate Trends: A Routine Activity Approach. American Sociological Review, 44(4), 588–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cornish, D. B., & Clarke, R. V. (1986). The Reasoning Criminal: Rational Choice Perspectives on Offending. New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cornish, D. B., & Clarke, R. V. (2008). The Rational Choice Perspective. In R. Wortley & L. Mazerolle (Eds.), Environmental Criminology and Crime Analysis. London: Willan Publishing.Google Scholar
  31. Cowburn, M., Gelsthorpe, L., & Wahidin, A. (Eds.). (2016). Research Ethics in Criminology: Dilemmas, Issues and Solutions. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  32. Cowburn, M., Gelsthorpe, L., & Wahidin, A. (Eds.). (2017). Research Ethics in Criminology: Dilemmas, Issues and Solutions. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  33. Cozens, P. (2002). Sustainable Urban Development and Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design for the British City. Towards an Effective Urban Environmentalism for the 21st Century. Cities, 19(2), 129–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cozens, P. (2007). Public Health and the Potential Benefits of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design. NSW Public Health Bulletin, 18(12), 232–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cozens, P., & Love, T. (2015). A Review and Current Status of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED). Journal of Planning Literature, 30(4), 393–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cozens, P., Saville, G., & Hillier, D. (2005). Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED): A Review and Modern Bibliography. Property Management, 23(5), 328–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Deutsch, D. (2011). The Beginning of Infinity: Explanations That Transform the World. London: Penguin Books Limited.Google Scholar
  38. Eck, J. E. (1993). The Threat of Crime Displacement. Problem Solving Quarterly, 6(3), 1–7.Google Scholar
  39. Eck, J. E. (1994). Drug Markets and Drug Places: A Case-Control Study of the Spatial Structure of Illicit Drug Dealing. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park.Google Scholar
  40. Eck, J. E. (1995). Examining Routine Activity Theory: A Review of Two Books. Justice Quarterly, 12(4), 783–797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Eck, J. E. (2003). Police Problems: The Complexity of Problem Theory, Research and Evaluation. In J. Knutsson (Ed.), Problem Oriented Policing: From Innovation to Mainstream (Crime Prevention Studies Series 15). Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.Google Scholar
  42. Etannibi, E. O. A., & Chukwuma, I. C. (2011). Police Internal Control Systems in West Africa. Lagos: CLEEN Foundation.Google Scholar
  43. Fagan, J., & Davies, G. (2000). Street Stops and Broken Windows: Terry, Race, and Disorder in New York City. Fordham Urban Law Journal, 28(2), 457–504.Google Scholar
  44. Felson, M. (1995). Those Who Discourage Crime. In D. Weisburd & J. E. Eck (Eds.), Crime and Place. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.Google Scholar
  45. Felson, M. (2008). Routine Activity Approach. In R. Wortley & L. Mazerolle (Eds.), Environmental Criminology and Crime Analysis. London: Willan Publishing.Google Scholar
  46. Felson, M., & Clarke, R. V. (1998). Opportunity Makes the Thief: Practical Theory for Crime Prevention. London: Home Office.Google Scholar
  47. Freud, S. (1933). New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-analysis. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  48. Glaser, D. (1971). Social Deviance. Chicago: Markham.Google Scholar
  49. Goix, R. L. (2005). Gated Communities: Sprawl and Social Segregation in Southern California. Housing Studies, 20(2), 323–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A General Theory of Crime. Louisville, KY: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Greenwood, P., Model, K., Rydell, C., & Chiesa, J. (1998). Diverting Children from a Life of Crime: Measuring Costs and Benefits. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.Google Scholar
  52. Grohe, B. (2011). Measuring Residents’ Perceptions of Defensible Space Compared to Incidence of Crime. Risk Management, 13(2), 43–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Guerette, R. T., & Bowers, K. (2009). Assessing the Extent of Crime Displacement and Diffusion of Benefits: A Review of Situational Crime Prevention Evaluations. Criminology, 47(4), 1331–1368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hesseling, R. (1994). Displacement: A Review of the Empirical Literature. In R. V. Clarke (Ed.), Crime Prevention Studies (Vol. 3). New York, NY: Criminal Justice Press.Google Scholar
  55. Huey, L., & Ricciardelli, R. (2016). From Seeds to Orchards: Using Evidence-Based Policing to Address Canada’s Policing Research Needs. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 58(1), 119–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jeffery, C. R. (1971). Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design. Beverly Hill, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  57. Jeffery, C. R. (1977). Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (2nd ed.). Beverly Hill, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  58. Johnson, S. D., Bowers, K. J., & Guerrette, R. (2012). Crime Displacement and Diffusion of Benefits: A Review of Situational Crime Prevention Measures. In B. Welsh & D. Farrington (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Crime Prevention. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Kelling, G. L., & Coles, C. M. (1996). Fixing Broken Windows: Restoring Order and Reducing Crime in American Cities. New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
  60. Kieghe, D. (2016). National Ambition: Reconstructing Nigeria. London: New Generation Publishing.Google Scholar
  61. Kitsuse, J. I. (1962). Societal Reaction to Deviant Behaviour: Problems of Theory and Method. Social Problems, 9(3), 247–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kobrin, S. (1976). Labelling Approaches: Problems and Limits. In J. F. Short (Ed.), Delinquency, Crime, and Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  63. Kuhn, T. S. (1977). The Essential Tension. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Landman, K. (2008). Gated Neighbourhoods in South Africa: An Appropriate Urban Design Approach? Urban Design International, 13(4), 227–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Landman, K., & Libermann, S. (2005). Planning Against Crime, Preventing Crime with People Not Barriers. South African Crime Quarterly, 11, 21–29.Google Scholar
  66. Lindegaard, M. R., Bernasco, W., Jacques, S., & Zevenbergen, B. (2014). Posterior Gains and Immediate Pains: Offender Emotions Before, During and After Robberies. In J.-L. Van Gelder, H. Elffers, D. Reynald, & D. Nagin (Eds.), Affect and Cognition in Criminal Decision Making. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  67. Lombroso, C. (2006). Criminal Man. Durham, NC and London: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lum, C. (2009). Translating Policing Research into Practice (Ideas in American Policing Series, Number 11). Washington, DC: Police Foundation.Google Scholar
  69. Moffat, R. E. (1983). Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design – A Management Perspective. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 25(1), 19–31.Google Scholar
  70. Myers, G. (2011). African Cities: Alternative Visions of Urban Theory and Practice. London: Zed Books Limited.Google Scholar
  71. Nagin, D. S. (2007). Moving Choice to Center Stage in Criminological Research and Theory. Criminology, 45(2), 259–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Newman, O. (1972). Defensible Space. London: Architectural Press.Google Scholar
  73. Nubani, L., & Wineman, J. (2005). The Role of Space Syntax in Identifying the Relationship Between Space and Crime. Paper Presented at the Proceedings of the 5th Space Syntax Symposium on Space Syntax, Delft, Holland.Google Scholar
  74. Ojo, A., & Ezepue, P. O. (2017). Using Casualty Assessment and Weighted Hit Rates to Calibrate Spatial Patterns of Boko Haram Insurgency for Emergency Response Preparedness. Journal of Terrorism Research, 8(4), 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ojo, A., Evans, R., & Karecha, J. (2017). Repercussions of the Coalition Governments Austerity Policy on Community Safety Across Merseyside. Policing.  https://doi.org/10.1093/police/pax093.
  76. Okoye, C. A. F., Joe-Akunne, C. O., & Chine, B. C. (2016). Rational Choice Theory of Crime: Punishment Implications for Kidnapping in Nigeria. Practicum Psychologia, 6(1), 43–52.Google Scholar
  77. Park, R. E., & Burgess, E. W. (1928). Introduction to the Science of Sociology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  78. Park, R. E., Burgess, E. W., & McKenzie, R. (1969). The Growth of the City. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  79. Pérouse de Montclos, M. (2016). Arguments for a Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Violence in Nigeria. In M. Marc-Antoine (Ed.), Violence in Nigeria: A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis. Leiden: African Studies Centre.Google Scholar
  80. Poyner, B. (1993). What Works in Crime Prevention: An Overview of Evaluations. In R. V. Clarke (Ed.), Situational Crime Prevention: Successful Case Studies. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.Google Scholar
  81. Resnik, D. B., & Elliott, K. C. (2016). The Ethical Challenges of Socially Responsible Science. Accountability in Research, 23(1), 31–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Schneider, R., & Kitchen, T. (2002). Planning for Crime Prevention: A Transatlantic Perspective. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  83. Schulenberg, J. L. (2003). The Social Context of Police Discretion with Young Offenders: An Ecological Analysis. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 45(2), 127–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Shaw, C. R., & McKay, H. D. (1942). Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  85. Sherman, L. (2013). The Rise of Evidence-Based Policing: Targeting, Testing and Tracking. Crime and Justice, 42(1), 377–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Sherman, L. (2016). The Cambridge Crime Harm Index: Measuring Total Harm from Crime Based on Sentencing Guidelines. Policing, 10(1), 171–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sousa, W. H., & Kelling, G. L. (2006). Of Broken Windows: Criminology and Criminal Justice. In D. L. Weisburd & A. A. Braga (Eds.), Police Innovation: Contrasting Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  88. Stevenson, D. (2013). Cities and Urban Cultures. Maidenhead: Open University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Stren, R., & Halfani, M. (2001). The Cities of Sub-Saharan Africa: From Dependency to Marginality. In R. Paddison (Ed.), Handbook of Urban Studies. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  90. Tseloni, A., Farrell, G., Tilley, N., Grove, L., Thompson, R., & Garius, L. (2012). Towards a Comprehensive Research Plan on Opportunity Theory and the Crime Falls. In J. van Dijk, A. Tseloni, & G. Farrell (Eds.), The International Crime Drop. Crime Prevention and Security Management. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  91. UNODC. (2010). Handbook on the Crime Prevention Guidelines: Making Them Work. Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Welsh, B. C., Braga, A. A., & Bruinsma, G. J. N. (2015). Reimagining Broken Windows: From Theory to Policy. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 52(4), 447–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Whetten, D. A. (1989). What Constitutes a Theoretical Contribution? Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 490–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wilcox, P., Land, K. C., & Hunt, S. (2003). Criminal Circumstance: A Dynamic Multicontextual Criminal Opportunity Theory. New York: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  95. Wilson, J. Q., & Kelling, G. L. (1982, March). Broken Windows: The Police and Neighborhood Safety. Atlantic Monthly, 249(3), 29–38.Google Scholar
  96. Wortley, R. (2008). Situational Precipitators of Crime. In R. Wortley & L. Mazerolle (Eds.), Environmental Criminology and Crime Analysis. London: Willan Publishing.Google Scholar
  97. Wortley, R. (2010). Critiques of Situational Crime Prevention. In B. Fisher & S. Lab (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Victimology and Crime Prevention. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  98. Wright, B. R. E., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., & Paternoster, R. (2004). Does the Perceived Risk of Punishment Deter Criminally Prone Individuals? Rational Choice, Self-Control, and Crime. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 41(2), 180–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of GeographyUniversity of LincolnLincolnUK
  2. 2.CLEEN FoundationAbujaNigeria

Personalised recommendations