Advertisement

Myanmar: On a Bumpy Road of Transition

  • Thomas Bernhardt
  • Aung Hein
Chapter

Abstract

After decades as pariah state, Myanmar embarked on a transition toward democracy in 2010 which culminated in the first free elections in 25 years in 2015. In parallel to political liberalization, the country also opened up and reformed economically. Foreign capital started flowing in, trade increased enormously, the financial sector expanded, private business began to flourish, and rapid economic growth ensued. Lately, however, the road of transition has become bumpier. Peace negotiations and national reconciliation are moving only slowly and the economic reform momentum has slowed. Myanmar’s economy continues to suffer from limited diversification, low productivity, and poor infrastructure. Regional and global economic integration has progressed but remained fairly shallow. This chapter notes various social indicators that have improved as well as shortcomings that persist.

References

  1. ADB. 2014. Myanmar: Unlocking the Potential. Country Diagnostic Study. Manila: ADB.Google Scholar
  2. ADB (Asian Development Bank). 2016. Myanmar Transport Sector Policy Note: How to Reduce Transport Costs. Manila: ADB.Google Scholar
  3. Bernhardt, Thomas. 2017. Myanmar, Say Hello to the World of Global Value Chains. In Myanmar’s Integration with the World: Challenges and Policy Options, ed. Prabir De and Ajitava Raychaudhuri. Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  4. Bernhardt, Thomas, S. Kanay De, and Mi Win Thida. 2017a. Myanmar labour issues from the perspective of enterprises: Findings from a survey of food processing and garment manufacturing enterprises. Yangon: International Labour Organization.Google Scholar
  5. Bernhardt, Thomas, Giles Dickenson-Jones, and S. Kanay De. 2017b. New Kids on the ASEAN Block: Myanmar SMEs and Regional Economic Integration. Journal of Southeast Asian Economies 34 (1): 4–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bissinger, Jared. 2014. Myanmar’s Economic Institutions in Transition. Journal of Southeast Asian Economies 31 (2): 241–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Charney, Michael. 2009. A History of Modern Burma. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ferrarini, Benno. 2014. Myanmar’s Trade and Its Potential. Journal of Southeast Asian Economies 31 (2): 195–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gabusi, Guiseppe. 2015. State, Market and Social Order: Myanmar’s Political Economy Challenges. European Journal of East Asian Studies 14: 52–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. GIZ. 2016. Myanmar’s Financial Sector. A Challenging Environment for Banks. Yangon: GIZ.Google Scholar
  11. IMF. 2018. Myanmar: Staff Report for the 2017 Article IV Consultation. Washington: IMF.Google Scholar
  12. International Crisis Group. 2017. Myanmar’s Rohingya Crisis Enters a Dangerous New Phase. www.crisisgroup.org/asia/south-east-asia/myanmar/292-myanmars-rohingya-crisis-enters-dangerous-new-phase. Accessed June 15, 2018.
  13. Kipgen, Nehginpao. 2017. Militarization of Politics in Myanmar and Thailand. International Studies 53 (2): 53–172.Google Scholar
  14. Menon, Jayant, and Anna Cassandra Melendez. 2017. Realizing an ASEAN Economic Community: Progress and Remaining Challenge. Singapore Economic Review 62 (3): 681–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mizuno, Atsuko. 2016. Economic Relations Between Myanmar and China. In The Myanmar Economy: Its Past, Present, and Prospects, ed. Konosuke Odaka. Tokyo: Springer.Google Scholar
  16. MOLES (Ministry of Labour, Employment and Social Security) and CSO (Central Statistical Organization). 2015. Myanmar Labour Force, Child Labour and School-to-Work Transition Survey. Nay Pyi Taw: MOLES.Google Scholar
  17. Nathan Associates. 2016. The Obligations of Membership: Myanmar in ASEAN. Yangon: Nathan Associates.Google Scholar
  18. Nitta, Yuichi. 2018. Two Years on, Myanmar’s Lack of Reform Turns Investors Away. Nikkei Asian Review, March 30.Google Scholar
  19. OECD. 2013. Multi-Dimensional Review of Myanmar: Volume 1. Initial Assessment. Paris: OECD.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pulipaka, Sanjay. 2017. Myanmar’s Political Transition, ed. De and Raychaudhuri.Google Scholar
  21. Than, Tin Maung Maung. 2014. Introductory Overview: Myanmar’s Economic Reforms. Journal of Southeast Asian Economies 31 (2): 165–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. ———. 2015. Myanmar’s Economic Reforms: Hard Choices Ahead. Social Research 82 (2): 453–480.Google Scholar
  23. The Economist. 2018. Myanmar’s Government Unveils a 238-Point Economic Reform Plan, May 1.Google Scholar
  24. Turnell, Sean. 2014. Banking and Financial Regulation and Reform in Myanmar. Journal of Southeast Asian Economies 31 (2): 225–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. UNDP. 2014. Myanmar One Pager Business Census 2013–2014. Yangon: UNDP.Google Scholar
  26. World Bank. 2017. Enterprise Surveys – Country Profile Myanmar. Washington: World Bank.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Bernhardt
    • 1
  • Aung Hein
    • 2
  1. 1.Department for International Financial Institutions, Austrian Federal Ministry of FinanceViennaAustria
  2. 2.Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton UniversityPrincetonUSA

Personalised recommendations