Advertisement

Improving Urban and Peri-urban Health Outcomes Through Early Detection and Aid Planning

  • Kathryn GraceEmail author
  • Alan T. Murray
  • Ran Wei
Chapter
Part of the Global Perspectives on Health Geography book series (GPHG)

Abstract

Chronic food insecurity significantly constrains short- and long-term health, as well as the development of individuals and households, ultimately impacting economic progress in some of the poorest and fastest growing communities on the planet. One of the strategies used to combat household- and individual-level food insecurity is food aid. Ensuring that food aid reaches the neediest people, however, is an ongoing challenge. In this chapter, we explore the use of geospatial technologies as part of a framework for improving food aid targeting in Bamako, Mali. We develop and apply quantitative models that rely on remotely sensed data and health survey data to highlight the importance of different aspects of demand for food aid in urban spaces. The results highlight the usefulness of this approach for food aid planning in urban areas where food need is unevenly distributed over a densely populated area.

Keywords

Spatial optimization Geospatial technologies GIS Remote sensing Food security 

References

  1. Abuya, B. A., Ciera, J., & Kimani-Murage, E. (2012). Effect of mother’s education on child’s nutritional status in the slums of Nairobi. BMC Pediatrics, 12(1), 80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bhutta, Z., Das, J., Bahl, R., Lawn, J., Salam, R., Paul, V., Sankar, M., et al. (2014). Can available interventions end preventable deaths in mothers, newborn babies, and stillbirths, and at what cost? The Lancet, 384(9940), 347–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Black, R., Alderman, H., Bhutta, Z., Gillespie, S., Haddad, L., Horton, S., Lartey, A., et al. (2013). Maternal and child nutrition: Building momentum for impact. The Lancet, 382(9890), 6–375.Google Scholar
  4. Brown, M. E., & McCarty, J. L. (2017). Is remote sensing useful for finding and monitoring urban farms? Applied Geography, 80, 23–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown, M.E., Antle, J.M., Backlund, P., Carr, E.R., Easterling, W.E., Walsh, M.K., Ammann, C., Attavanich, W., Barrett, C.B., Bellemare, M.F., Dancheck, V., Funk, C., Grace, K., Ingram, J.S.I., Jiang, H., Maletta, H., Mata, T., Murray, A., Ngugi, M., Ojima, D., O’Neill, B., & Tebaldi, C. (2015). Climate Change, Global Food Security, and the U.S. Food System. USDA Technical Document, Washington DC.  https://doi.org/10.7930/J0862DC7.
  6. Brown, M. E., Carr, E. R., Grace, K. L., Wiebe, K., Funk, C. C., Attavanich, W., et al. (2017). Do markets and trade help or hurt the global food system adapt to climate change? Food Policy, 68, 154–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carroll, M.L., DiMiceli, R.A., Sohlberg, R.A., & Townshend, J.R.G. (2004). 250m MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, Day 289, 2003.Google Scholar
  8. Castillo, G. E. (2003). Livelihoods and the city: An overview of the emergence of agriculture in urban spaces. Progress in Development Studies, 3(4), 339–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Castle, S., Scott, R., & Mariko, S. (2014). Child health and nutrition in Mali: Further analysis of the 2012–13 demographic and health survey. DHS Further Analysis Reports No. 92. Rockville, Maryland, USA: ICF International.Google Scholar
  10. Church, R. L. (2008). BEAMR: An exact and approximate model for the p-median problem. Computers & Operations Research, 35(2), 417–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Church, R. L., & Murray, A. T. (2009). Business site selection, location analysis, and GIS. Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  12. Clay, D. C., Molla, D., & Habtewold, D. (1999). Food aid targeting in Ethiopia: A study of who needs it and who gets it. Food Policy, 24(4), 391–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cohon, J. L. (1978). Multiobjective programming and planning. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  14. FAO. (1996). World Food Summit: Rome Declaration on World Food Security. Rome: United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.Google Scholar
  15. FAO. (2012). Food, agriculture and cities: The challenges of food and nutrition security, agriculture and ecosystem management in an urbanizing world. In (p. 48). Rome, Italy: United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.Google Scholar
  16. FAO, IFAD & WFP. (2015). The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2015. Meeting the 2015 international hunger targets: Taking stock of uneven progress. Rome, Italy, FAO.Google Scholar
  17. Garey, M. R., & Johnson, D. S. (1979). Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness. New York: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  18. Gautam, Y., & Andersen, P. (2017). Aid or abyss? Food assistance programs (FAPs), food security and livelihoods in Humla, Nepal. Food Security, 9(2), 227–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gelli, A., Meir, U., & Espejo, F. (2007). Does provision of food in school increase girls’enrollment? Evidence from schools in sub-Saharan Africa. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 28(2), 149–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gentilini, U. (2014). Our daily bread: What is the evidence on comparing cash versus food transfers. Washington, DC: The World Bank Group.Google Scholar
  21. Gillespie, S., Haddad, L., Mannar, V., Menon, P., Nisbett, N., & Maternal and Child Nutrition Study Group. (2013). The politics of reducing malnutrition: Building commitment and accelerating progress. The Lancet, 382(9891), 552–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Grace, K., Wei, R., & Murray, A. T. (2017). A spatial analytic framework for assessing and improving food aid distribution in developing countries. Food Security, 9(4), 867–880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Grace, K., Lerner, A. M., Mikal, J., & Sangli, G. (2017b). A qualitative investigation of childbearing and seasonal hunger in peri-urban Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Population and Environment, 38(4), 369–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hampshire, K., Panter-Brick, C., Kilpatrick, K., & Casiday, R. (2009). Saving lives, preserving livelihoods: Understanding risk, decision-making and child health in a food crisis. Social Science and Medicine, 68(4), 758–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hidrobo, M., Hoddinott, J., Peterman, A., Margolies, A., & Moreira, V. (2014). Cash, food, or vouchers? Evidence from a randomized experiment in northern Ecuador. Journal of Development Economics, 107, 144–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. ICF International. (2013). Demographic and health surveys Mali. Rockville: ICF International.Google Scholar
  27. Jaspars, S., & Young, H. (1996). General food distribution in emergencies: From nutritional needs to political priorities. UK: Overseas Development Institute (ODI).Google Scholar
  28. Jayne, T. S., Strauss, J., Yamano, T., & Molla, D. (2001). Giving to the poor? Targeting of food aid in rural Ethiopia. World Development, 29(5), 887–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lall, S. V., Henderson, J. V., & Venables, A. J. (2017). Africa’s cities: Opening doors to the world. Washington, DC: World Bank. © World Bank. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/25896 License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lentz, E., & Barrett, C. (2013). The economics and nutritional impacts of food assistance policies and programs. Food Policy, 42, 151–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lerner, A. M., & Eakin, H. (2011). An obsolete dichotomy? Rethinking the rural–urban interface in terms of food security and production in the global south. The Geographical Journal, 177(4), 311–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Leroy, J. L., Ruel, M., & Verhofstadt, E. (2009). The impact of conditional cash transfer programmes on child nutrition: A review of evidence using a programme theory framework. Journal of Development Effectiveness, 1(2), 103–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Li, X., Xiao, N., Claramunt, C., & Lin, H. (2011). Initialization strategies to enhancing the performance of genetic algorithms for the p-median problem. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 61(4), 1024–1034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Maxwell, D., Parker, J., & Stobaugh, H. (2013). What drives program choice in food security crises? Examining the “response analysis”. question. World Development, 49, 68–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Misselhorn, A., Aggarwal, P., Ericksen, P., Gregory, P., Horn-Phathanothai, L., Ingram, J., & Wiebe, K. (2012). A vision for attaining food security. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 4(1), 7–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mladenović, N., Brimberg, J., Hansen, P., & Moreno-Pérez, J. A. (2007). The p-median problem: A survey of metaheuristic approaches. European Journal of Operational Research, 179(3), 927–939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Murray, A. T., & Church, R. L. (1996). Applying simulated annealing to location-planning models. Journal of Heuristics, 2(1), 31–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pinstrup-Andersen, P. (2009). Food security: Definition and measurement. Food Security, 1(1), 5–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rancourt, M.-È., Cordeau, J., Laporte, G., & Watkins, B. (2015). Tactical network planning for food aid distribution in Kenya. Computers and Operations Research, 56, 68–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. ReVelle, C. S., & Swain, R. W. (1970). Central facilities location. Geographical Analysis, 2(1), 30–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sen, A. (1990). Food, economics and entitlements. In J. Dreze & A. Sen (Eds.), The political economy of hunger (pp. 10–45). New York: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  42. Sen, A. (1997). Entitlement perspectives on hunger. In Ending the inheritance of hunger. Rome: World Food Programme.Google Scholar
  43. Smith, L. C., El Obeid, A., & Jensen, H. (2000). The geography and causes of food insecurity in developing countries. Agricultural Economics, 22(2), 199–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tong, D., & Murray, A. T. (2012). Spatial optimization in geography. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 102(6), 1290–1309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. USAID. (2013). US Agency for International Development. New approaches to food assistance fact sheet. Downloaded July 11, 2016.Google Scholar
  46. USAID. (2014). US Agency for International Development. How title II food aid works. Downloaded July 11, 2016.Google Scholar
  47. Van de Poel, E., O’Donnell, O., & Van Doorslaer, E. (2007). Are urban children really healthier? Evidence from 47 developing countries. Social Science & Medicine, 65(10), 1986–2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Violette, W. J., Harou, A., Upton, J., Bell, S., Barrett, C., Gómez, M., & Lentz, E. (2013). Recipients’ satisfaction with locally procured food aid rations: Comparative evidence from a three country matched survey. World Development, 49, 30–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zezza, A., & Tasciotti, L. (2010). Urban agriculture, poverty, and food security: Empirical evidence from a sample of developing countries. Food Policy, 35(4), 265–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geography, Environment and SocietyUniversity of MinnesotaTwin CitiesUSA
  2. 2.Department of GeographyUniversity of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraUSA
  3. 3.School of Public Policy and Center for Geospatial SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaRiversideUSA

Personalised recommendations