Advertisement

Clientele of the Post-War Prostitution Business

  • Roos de Wildt
Chapter
Part of the Studies of Organized Crime book series (SOOC, volume 17)

Abstract

This chapter discusses various types of clients of the nascent sex industry as identified by the women who are actually servicing them. Did the demand of peacekeepers indeed singlehandedly feed the prostitution business in Kosovo, as the dominant representation of post-war prostitution suggests? The experiences of women engaged in prostitution show that international peacekeepers have been clients of the sex industry, despite special measures that forbid UN staff to visit premises where prostitution is allegedly taking place. Aside from peacekeepers, the international clientele has been comprised of civilian and police staff, diplomats, and relief workers dispatched in Kosovo. Nevertheless, the majority of the clients were local men. Furthermore, the diaspora, jokingly described as “schatzis” by inhabitants of Kosovo, return to their motherland in large numbers during the summer and winter holidays. This causes peak seasons in the sex industry. The suggestion that sex industries in the context of peacekeeping missions are prone to becoming destinations for sex tourists—as women are considered accustomed to catering to international clients—is also discussed. This suggestion has not been confirmed by the empirical data from Kosovo, as it overlooks part of the current structure in which the atmosphere in bars does not exude an international air at all.

Keywords

Clients Johns Sex industry Prostitution Peacekeepers United Nations Diaspora Sex tourism 

References

  1. Amnesty International. (2004). “So does it mean I have rights?” Protecting the human rights of women and girls trafficked for forced prostitution in Kosovo. London, UK: Amnesty International.Google Scholar
  2. Bakhtin, M. M. (1984). Rabelais and his world. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bickford, A. (2003). See the world, meet interesting people, have sex with them: Tourism, sex, and recruitment in the U.S. military. American Sexuality Magazine. Retrieved March 21, 2008, from http://nsrc.sfsu.edu/MagArticle.cfm?Article=113&PageID=8&SID=59FE2D7C4E0B33976D4CE7400DFFAD37&DSN=nsrc_dsn
  4. Bovenkerk, F., van San, M., Boone, M. M., Boekhout van Solinge, T., & Korf, D. J. (2006). Loverboys of modern pooierschap. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Augustus.Google Scholar
  5. Bullens, R. A. R., & Van Horn, J. E. (2000). Daad uit liefde: Gedwongen prostitutie van jonge meisjes. Justitiële verkenningen, 26(6), 25–41.Google Scholar
  6. Cauduro, A., Nicola, A. D., Fonio, C., Nuvoloni, A., & Ruspini, P. (2009). Innocent when you dream: Clients and trafficked women in Italy. In A. Di Nicola, A. Cauduro, M. Lombardi, & P. Ruspini (Eds.), Prostitution and human trafficking: Focus on clients (pp. 31–66). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clift, S., & Carter, S. (Eds.). (2000). Tourism and sex: Culture, commerce and coercion. London, UK and New York, NY: Pinter.Google Scholar
  8. Collins, R. (2008). Violence: A micro-sociological theory. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Currion, P. (2010). Strength in numbers: A review of NGO coordination in the field case study: Kosovo 1999–2002. Geneva, Switzerland: International Council of Voluntary Agencies.Google Scholar
  10. Dahinden, J. (2005). Contesting transnationalism? Lessons from the study of Albanian migration networks from former Yugoslavia. Global Networks, 5(2), 191–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Deen, T. (2005, April 4). Politics: ‘No Go’ zones to prevent sex abuse by U.N. peacekeepers. Inter Press Service News Agency. Retrieved November 7, 2017, from http://www.ipsnews.net/2005/04/politics-no-go-zones-to-prevent-sex-abuse-by-un-peacekeepers/
  12. Di Nicola, A., Cauduro, A., Lombardi, M., & Ruspini, P. (2009). Prostitution and human trafficking: Focus on clients. New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dragomirescu, D. A., Necula, C., & Simion, R. (2009). Romania: Emerging market for trafficking? In A. Di Nicola, A. Cauduro, M. Lombardi, & P. Ruspini (Eds.), Prostitution and human trafficking: Focus on clients (pp. 123–161). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Enloe, C. (2000). Maneuvers: The international politics of militarizing women’s lives. Berkeley, CA and London, UK: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  15. Flight, S., & Hulshof, P. (2009). Klanten van raamprostitutie. De vraag naar raamprostitutie in Amsterdam onderzocht.Google Scholar
  16. Friman, R., & Reich, S. (2007). Human trafficking, human security, and the Balkans. Pittsburgh, PA: Pittsburgh Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hampson, F. (2005). Administration of justice, rule of law and democracy (working paper). New York, NY: United Nations, Economic and Social Council.Google Scholar
  18. Henry, M. (2013). Sexual exploitation and abuse in UN peacekeeping missions: Problematising current responses. In S. Madhok, A. Phillips, & K. Wilson (Eds.), Gender, agency, and coercion (pp. 122–142). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hicks, G. (1997). The comfort women: Japan’s brutal regime of enforced prostitution in the second world war. New York, NY and London, UK: WW Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  20. Higate, P. (2003). Gender and peacekeeping. Case studies: The DRC and Sierra Leone. Africa Portal. Retrieved November 7, 2017, from: https://www.africaportal.org/publications/gender-and-peacekeeping-case-studies-the-drc-and-sierra-leone/
  21. Higate, P. (2007). Peacekeepers, masculinities, and sexual exploitation. Men and Masculinities, 10(1), 99–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Higate, P., & Henry, M. (2004). Engendering (in) security in peace support operations. Security Dialogue, 35(4), 481–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hughes, D. M. (2000). The ‘Natasha’ trade: The transnational shadow market of trafficking in women. Journal of International Affairs, 53(2), 625–651.Google Scholar
  24. Jennings, K., & Nikolić-Ristanović, V. (2009). UN peacekeeping economies and local sex industries: Connections and implications (Microcon working paper no. 17). Retrieved from http://www.peacewomen.org/assets/file/Resources/NGO/PK_SexIndustries_MICROCON_2009.pdf
  25. Jennings, K. M. (2008). Protecting whom?: Approaches to sexual exploitation and abuse in UN peacekeeping operations (report). Oslo, Norway: Fafo.Google Scholar
  26. Jennings, K. M. (2010). Unintended consequences of intimacy: Political economies of peacekeeping and sex tourism. International Peacekeeping, 17(2), 229–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jennings, K. M. (2014). Service, sex, and security: Gendered peacekeeping economies in Liberia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Security Dialogue, 45(4), 313–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jennings, K. M. (2015). Life in a ‘peace-kept’ City: Encounters with the peacekeeping economy. Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, 9(3), 296–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Martin, E. D. (1920). The behavior of crowds: A psychological study. New York, NY: Harper.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Martin, S. (2005). Must boys be boys? Ending sexual exploitation & abuse in UN peacekeeping missions. Washington, DC: Refugees International.Google Scholar
  31. Moon, K. (1997). Sex among allies: Military prostitution in US–Korean relations. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Nowicki, M.A. (2000). Ombudsperson Institution in Kosovo (special report no. 1). Pristina, Kosovo: Ombudsperson Institution Kosovo.Google Scholar
  33. Oldenburg, S. (2015). The politics of love and intimacy in Goma, Eastern DR Congo: Perspectives on the market of intervention as contact zone. Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, 9(3), 316–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Otto, D. (2007). Making sense of zero tolerance policies in peacekeeping sexual economies. Sexuality and the Law, 259–282.Google Scholar
  35. Pollock Sturdevant, S., & Stoltzfus, B. (1992). Let the good times roll: Prostitution and the US military in Asia. New York, NY: New Press.Google Scholar
  36. Presdee, M. (2000). Cultural criminology and the carnival of crime. London, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  37. Scott-Flynn, N. (2003, June). Coordination in Kosovo: The challenge for the NGO sector. Human Practice Network Magazine. Retrieved from https://odihpn.org/magazine/coordination-in-kosovo-the-challenge-for-the-ngo-sector/
  38. Segrave, M., Milivojevic, S., & Pickering, S. (2009). Sex trafficking: International context and response. Devon, UK: Willan Publishing.Google Scholar
  39. Shiboleth, T. (2015). Being a “John”: A client’s perspective on paying for pleasure. Oisterwijk, the Netherlands: Wolf Legal Publishing.Google Scholar
  40. Simic, O. (2012). Regulation of sexual conduct in UN peacekeeping operations. New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tanaka, T. (2002). Japan’s comfort women: Sexual slavery and prostitution during World War II and the US occupation. London, UK: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Terre des Hommes. (2010). Regional report on the implementation of the “UNICEF guidelines for the protection of the rights of child victims of trafficking in South Eastern Europe”: Assessment of the situation in Albania, Kosovo and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, 2010. Geneva, Switzerland: Terre des Hommes. Retrieved from http://tdh-childprotection.org/documents/regional-report-on-the-implementation-of-the-unicef-guidelines-for-the-protection-of-the-rights-of-child-victims-of-trafficking-in-south-eastern-europe
  43. Trotter, H. (2008). Sugar Girls & Seamen: A journey into the world of dockside prostitution in South Africa. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Turner, V. (1969). The ritual process: Structure and anti-structure. London, UK: Aldine Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  45. UN. (2005). A comprehensive strategy to eliminate future sexual exploitation and abuse in United Nations peacekeeping operations (The Zeid report). Retrieved from http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/61/858
  46. UN Economic and Social Council. (2005, July 7). Administration of justice, rule of law and democracy: Working paper on the accountability of international personnel taking part in peace support operations submitted by Françoise Hampson (UN Doc E/CN.4/Sub.2/2005/42). Retrieved from https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G05/148/03/PDF/G0514803.pdf?OpenElement
  47. UN General Assembly. (2005, March 24). Letter dated March 24, 2005 from the Secretary General to the President of the General Assembly (UN Doc A/59/710). Retrieved from https://cdu.unlb.org/Portals/0/Documents/KeyDoc5.pdf
  48. UN General Assembly. (2006, May 24). Special measures for protection from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse (UN Doc A/60/861). Retrieved from https://undocs.org/A/60/861
  49. UN General Assembly. (2008, June 25). Special measures for protection from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse (UN Doc A/62/890). Retrieved from https://undocs.org/A/62/890
  50. UN General Assembly. (2014, February 14). Special measures for protection from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse (UN Doc A/68/756). Retrieved from https://undocs.org/A/68/756
  51. UN General Assembly. (2015, February 13). Special measures for protection from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse (UN Doc A/69/779). Retrieved from https://undocs.org/A/69/779
  52. UN General Assembly. (2016, February 16). Special measures for protection from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse (UN Doc A/70/729). Retrieved from A/70/729Google Scholar
  53. UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo. (2004, May). Combating human trafficking in kosovo, strategy & commitment. UNMIK. Retrieved November 28, 2017, from http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/UNTC/UNPAN019190.pdf
  54. UN Secretariat. (2003, October 9). Secretary-general’s bulletin. Special measures for protection from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse. Retrieved from http://www.unhcr.org/protection/operations/405ac6614/secretary-generals-bulletin-special-measures-protection-sexual-exploitation.html
  55. UNDP. (2012). Kosovo Remittance Study 2012. New York, NY: UNDP.Google Scholar
  56. UNDP Kosovo. (2014). Kosovo human development report: Migration as a force for development. Retrieved from http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/khdr2014english.pdf
  57. UNMIK. (2000, August 18). Regulation no. 2000/47 on the status, privileges and immunities of KFOR and UNMIK and their personnel in Kosovo. UNMIK. Retrieved from http://www.unmikonline.org/regulations/2000/reg47-00.htm
  58. UNMIK. (2005, January 31). Off limits list. UNMIK. Retrieved from http://kosovo6b.tripod.com/March_2005_Off-Limits_List.xls
  59. UNMIK. (2011). Special measures for protection from sexual exploitation and abuse. UNMIK. Retrieved from http://www.unmikonline.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/Conduct%20and%20Discipline%20FREQUENTLY%20ASKED%20QUESTIONS%20AND%20ANSWERS%20%2003%20JUNE%202011.pdf
  60. Van Gennep, A. (1960). The rites of passage. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  61. Vanwesenbeeck, I., De Graaf, R., Van Zessen, G., Straver, C. J., & Visser, J. H. (1993). Protection styles of prostitutes’ clients: Intentions, behavior, and considerations in relation to AIDS. Journal of Sex Education and Therapy, 19(2), 79–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Vathi, Z., & Black, R. (2007). Migration and poverty reduction in Kosovo (working Paper No. C, 12). Brighton, UK: Development Research Centre of Migration, Globalisation and Poverty.Google Scholar
  63. Verwijs, R., Mein, A. G., Goderie, M., Harreveld, C., & Jansma, A. (2011). Loverboys en hun slachtoffers. Inzicht in de aard en omvang problematiek en in het aanbod aan hulpverlening en opvang. Utrecht, the Netherlands: Verwey-Jonker Instituut.Google Scholar
  64. Weenink, D. (2013). Decontrolled by solidarity: Understanding recreational violence in moral holidays. Human Figurations, 2(3).Google Scholar
  65. Weitzer, R. (2005). The growing moral panic over prostitution and sex trafficking. The Criminologist, 30(5), 1–4.Google Scholar
  66. Whitworth, S. (2004). Men, militarism, and UN peacekeeping: A gendered analysis. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
  67. Yea, S. (2005). Labour of love: Filipina entertainers’ narratives of romance and relationships with GIs in US military camp towns in Korea. Women’s Studies International Forum, 28(6), 456–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Yoshimi, Y. (2000). Comfort women: Sexual slavery in the Japanese military during World War II. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Zaitch, D., & Staring, R. (2009). The flesh is weak, the spirit even weaker: Clients and trafficked women in the Netherlands. In A. Di Nicola, A. Cauduro, M. Lombardi, & P. Ruspini (Eds.), Prostitution and human trafficking: Focus on clients (pp. 67–121). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Zhang, S. X. (2009). Beyond the ‘Natasha’ story – A review and critique of current research on sex trafficking. Global Crime, 10(3), 178–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roos de Wildt
    • 1
  1. 1.Verwey-Jonker InstituteUtrechtThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations