Data Measurement, Data Redundancy, and Their Biological Relevance

  • Mohd Sayeed Akhtar
  • Ibrahim A. Alaraidh
  • Mallappa Kumara Swamy


Sequences are used to determine the accurate order of nucleotide bases in an individual. In this regard, the genomic and proteomic data sequences provide a clue on various biological processes, protein interactions, and disease pathways. The initiation and progression of various types of diseases are connected with biological processes, and the genomic and protein sequence data entails the details of various biological processes and protein interactions. Thus, the aim of this chapter is to focus on the fundamental aspects of database annotation quality, database redundancy, genomics diversity, and gene contents.


Annotation quality Data redundancy Genomics Proteomics Sequencing 



The authors (Mohd Sayeed Akhtar and Ibrahim A. Alaraidh) are highly grateful to the Department of Botany, Gandhi Faiz-e-Aam College, Shahjahanpur, U.P., India, and Botany and Microbiology Department, Science College, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohd Sayeed Akhtar
    • 1
  • Ibrahim A. Alaraidh
    • 2
  • Mallappa Kumara Swamy
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Botany, Gandhi Faiz-e-Aam CollegeShahjahanpurIndia
  2. 2.Science College, Botany and Microbiology DepartmentKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Department of BiotechnologyEast West First Grade College of ScienceBengaluruIndia

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