Resuscitation and Emergency Drugs

  • Philip RussellEmail author


Cardiac arrest in children is usually asystolic due to hypoxia and the end-point of decompensated respiratory or circulatory failure. Prognosis of arrests in children is better than adults. 5–15% of cardiac arrests in children are due to a primary cardiac event with underlying cardiac disease. High quality CPR includes minimal interruption to chest compressions and ventilation. The compression rate during CPR for all ages is between 100 and 120 per minute, and the ratio of compressions to ventilations is 15:2. Although manual defibrillators are preferred for children, automatic external defibrillators can be used, preferably with attenuator pads for children younger than 8 years. Vascular access is challenging during emergencies and intra-osseous access using a drill device has become the initial technique to use. The neonatal resuscitation guidelines are appropriate for newborns with a transitional circulation, and in locations where the neonatal guidelines are commonly used, such as the delivery room, nursery or NICU. Although the APGAR score is always recorded, it does not determine the need for resuscitation. Ventilation to reverse hypoxia and bradycardia is the most important aspect of neonatal resuscitation, but may be difficult due to their small size and poor lung compliance before expansion of the lungs and resorption of lung fluid.


Neonatal resuscitation Intraosseous needle Anesthetic anaphylaxis Management of cardiac arrest in children Pediatric advanced life support 

Further Reading

Perioperative Cardiac Arrest

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Resuscitation Guidelines

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Intraosseous Access

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Neonatal Resuscitation

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Estimation of Body Weight

  1. Appelbaum N, et al. Pediatric weight estimation by age in the digital era: optimizing a necessary evil. Resuscitation. 2018;122:29–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Western AnaesthesiologySubiacoAustralia

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