Conclusion: Responding to the Great Challenges of Citizenship and Governance

  • Valesca Lima
Part of the Governance, Development, and Social Inclusion in Latin America book series (GDSILA)


This chapter presents a summary of the key points around the challenges for participatory citizenship in Brazil. The political and economic crisis in Brazil has impacted the implementation of citizenship rights through governance since the shift to the right in Brazil. This move signaled the emergence of right-wing populism as the new major political force in the country, while the very notion of citizenship that links participation with governance is being challenged by another notion that connects citizenship with nationalism and moral superiority based on conservative and religious values. In this final chapter, I reflect on the processes of constant transformation of citizenship and on the ways counter-authoritarian movements can collaborate to preserve the mechanisms for participatory citizenship.


Democratic systems Governance structures Political participation Authoritarianism Participatory citizenship 


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  3. Rosanvallon, P., & Goldhammer, A. (2008). Counter-Democracy: Politics in an Age of Distrust. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Valesca Lima
    • 1
  1. 1.Maynooth UniversityDublinIreland

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