Advertisement

Basidiomycetous Yeast of the Genus Mrakia

  • Masaharu Tsuji
  • Sakae Kudoh
  • Yukiko Tanabe
  • Tamotsu Hoshino
Chapter

Abstract

Basidiomycetous yeast species of the genus Mrakia have been reported from a variety of extreme cold environments such as polar regions, glaciers, and high mountains. Several reports indicate that fungal species within the genus Mrakia occupy a major mycoflora in Antarctic environments. These results strongly suggest that this genus is well adapted to the polar environment. The genus Mrakia has unique characteristics such as an ethanol fermentation ability, and the ability to decompose milk fat under low-temperature conditions. Thus, the genus Mrakia has quite interesting characteristics. We believe that the results obtained in previous studies will contribute to the progress of related research fields and hope that further investigation will offer many opportunities to obtain more valuable knowledge on Antarctic microbes and their potential uses for human activities. In this chapter, we review the taxonomic history, physiology, ecological role, and biotechnological applications of basidiomycetous yeasts within the genus Mrakia. In the near future, this genus will become an important agent in the field of low-temperature microbiology.

Keywords

Bioremediation Biotechnological potential Ethanol fermentation Extracellular enzyme Wastewater treatment 

Notes

Acknowledgment

This research was partially supported byan NIPR Research Project (KP-309), a JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (A) to M. Tsuji (No. JP16H06211). Institution for Fermentation, Osaka, for Young Scientists to M. Tsuji (no. Y-2018–004), and the ArCS (Arctic Challenge for Sustainability) provided by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. We are deeply grateful to Masaki Uchida (NIPR).

References

  1. Boomer E, Rousseau M (1900) Note préliminaire sur les champignons recueillis par l’Expedition Antarctique Belge. Bull Acad R Sci Belgiq Clas Sci 8:640–646Google Scholar
  2. Bridge PD, Spooner BM (2012) Non-lichenized Antarctic fungi: transient visitors or members of a cryptic ecosystem? Fungal Ecol 5:381–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Buzzini P, Branda E, Goretti M, Turchetti B (2012) Psychrophilic yeasts from worldwide glacial habitats: diversity, adaptation strategies and biological potential. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 82:217–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. de Garcia V, Brizzio S, Libkind D, Buzzini P, van Broock M (2007) Biodiversity of cold adapted yeasts from glacial meltwater rivers in Patagonia Argentina. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 59:331–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. de Garcia V, Brizzio S, Broock MR (2012) Yeasts from glacial ice of Patagonian Andes, Argentina. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 82:540–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Deegenaars ML, Watson K (1998) Heat shock response in psychrophilic and psychrotrophic yeast from Antarctica. Extremophiles 2:41–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. di Menna ME (1966a) Three new yeasts from Antarctica soils: Candida nivalis, Candida gelida and Candida frigida spp n. Antonie Van Leeuenwoek 32:25–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. di Menna ME (1966b) Yeasts in Antarctic soil. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 32:29–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Diaz MR, Fell JW (2000) Molecular analyses of the IGS & ITS regions of rDNA of the psychrophilic yeasts in the genus Mrakia. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 77:7–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Eriksson T, Börjesson J, Tjerneld F (2002) Mechanism of surfactant effect in enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose. Enzym Microb Technol 31:353–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fell JW (2011) Mrakia Y. Yamada & Komagata (1987). In: Kurtzman CP, Fell JW, Boekhout T (eds) The yeast, a taxonomic study, 5th edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1503–1510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fell JW, Kurtzman CP (1990) Nucleotide sequence analysis of a variable region of the large subunit rRNA for identification of marine-occurring yeasts. Curr Microbiol 21:295–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fell JW, Margesin R (2011) Mrakiella Margesin & Fell (2008). In: Kurtzman CP, Fell JW, Boekhout T (eds) The yeast, a taxonomic study, 5th edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp 1847–1852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fell JW, Statzell AC, Hunter IL, Phaff HJ (1969) Leucosporidium gen. n., the heterobasidiomycetous stage of several yeasts of the genus Candida. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 35:433–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fell JW, Boekhout T, Fonseca A, Scoretti G, Statzelll-Tallman A (2000) Biodiversity and systematics of basidiomycetous yeasts as determined by large-subunit rDNA D1/D2 domain sequence analysis. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50:1351–1371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fell JW, Scorzetti G, Connell L, Craig S (2006) Biodiversity of micro-eucaryotes in Antarctic Dry Valley soil with <5% soil moisture. Soil Biol Biochem 38:3107–3119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Feller G, Gerday C (2003) Psychrophilic enzymes: hot topics in cold adaptation. Nat Rev Microbiol 1:200–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hua MX, Chi Z, Liu GL, Buzdar MA, Chi ZM (2010) Production of a novel and cold-active killer toxin by Mrakia frigida 2E00797 isolated from sea sediment in Antarctica. Extremophiles 14:515–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Komagata K, Nakase T (1965) New species of the genus Candida isolated from frozen foods. J Gen Appl Microbiol 11:255–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Liu GL, Wang K, Hua MX, Buzdar MA, Chi ZM (2012) Purification and characterization of the cold-active killer toxin from the psychrotolerant yeast Mrakia frigida isolated from sea sediments in Antarctica. Process Biochem 47:822–827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liu XZ, Wang QM, Göker M, Groenewald M, Kachalkin AV, Lumbsch HT, Millanes AM, Wedin M, Yurkov AM, Boekhout T, Bai FY (2015) Towards an integrated phylogenetic classification of the Tremellomycetes. Stud Mycol 81:85–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Margesin R, Fell JW (2008) Mrakiella cryoconiti gen. nov., sp. nov., a psychrophilic, anamorphic, basidiomycetous yeast from alpine and arctic habitats. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58:2977–2982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Margesin R, Fauster V, Fonteyne PA (2005) Characterization of cold-active pectate lyases from psychrophilic Mrakia frigida. Lett Appl Microbiol 40:453–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Masaharu Tsuji, Yukiko Tanabe, Warwick F. Vincent, Masaki Uchida, (2019) Mrakia hoshinonis sp. nov., a novel psychrophilic yeast isolated from a retreating glacier on Ellesmere Island in the Canadian High Arctic. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 69 (4):944–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Moreira SR, Schwan RF, de Carvalho P, Wheals AE (2001) Isolation and identification of yeasts and filamentous fungi from yoghurts in Brazil. Braz J Microbiol 32:117–122Google Scholar
  26. Nakagawa T, Nagaoka T, Taniguchi S, Miyaji T, Tomizawa N (2004) Isolation and characterization of psychrophilic yeasts producing cold-adapted pectinolytic enzymes. Lett Appl Microbiol 38:383–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Panikov NS, Sizova M (2007) Growth kinetics of microorganisms isolated from Alaskan soil and permafrost in solid media frozen down to −35°C. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 59:500–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pathan AAK, Bhadra B, Begum Z, Shivaji S (2010) Diversity of yeasts from puddles in the vicinity of Midre Lovénbreenglacier, arctic and bioprospecting for enzymes and fatty acids. Curr Microbiol 60:307–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Shimohara K, Fujiu S, Tsuji M, Kudoh S, Hoshino T, Yokota Y (2012) Lipolytic activities and their thermal dependence of Mrakia species, basidiomycetous yeast from Antarctica. J Water Waste (in Japanese) 54:691–696Google Scholar
  30. Sinclair NA, Stokes JL (1965) Obligately psychrophilic yeasts from the polar regions. Can J Microbiol 11:259–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Singh P, Singh SM (2012) Characterization of yeast and filamentous fungi isolated from cryoconite holes of Svalbard, Arctic. Polar Biol 35:575–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Singh SM, Tsuji M, Gawas-Sakhalker P, Loonen MJJE, Hoshino T (2016) Bird feather fungi from Svalbard Arctic. Polar Biol 39:523–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Suh SO, Sugiyama J (1993) Phylogeny among the basidiomycetous yeasts inferred from small subunit ribosomal DNA sequence. J Gen Microbiol 139:1595–1598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Takagi M, Abe S, Suzuki S, Emert GH, Yata A (1977) A method for production of alcohol directly from cellulose using cellulase and yeast. In Bioconversion Symposium Proceedings. IIT, Delhi, pp 551–571Google Scholar
  35. Thomas-Hall SR, Turchetti B, Buzzini P, Branda E, Boekhout T, Threelen B, Watson K (2010) Cold-adapted yeasts from Antarctica and Italian alps-description of three novel species: Mrakia robertii sp. nov., Mrakia blollopis sp. nov. and Mrakiella niccombsii sp. nov. Extremophiles 14:47–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Thomsen MH, Thygesen A, Thomsen AB (2009) Identification and characterization of fermentation inhibitors formed during hydrothermal treatment and following SSF of wheat straw. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 83:447–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tiquia-Arashiro SM, Rodrigues D (2016) Thermophiles and Psychrophiles in Nanotechnology. In: Extremophiles: applications in nanotechnology. Springer International Publishing, New York, pp 89–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tsuji M, Fujiu S, Xiao N, Hanada Y, Kudoh S, Kondo H, Tsuda S, Hoshino T (2013a) Cold adaptation of fungi obtained from soil and lake sediment in the Skarvsnes ice-free area, Antarctic. FEMS Microbiol Lett 346:121–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tsuji M, Singh SM, Yokota Y, Kudoh S, Hoshino T (2013b) Influence of initial pH on ethanol production by Antarctic Basidiomycetous yeast Mrakia blollopis. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 77:2483–2485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tsuji M, Yokota Y, Shimohara K, Kudoh S, Hoshino T (2013c) An application of wastewater treatment in a cold environment and stable lipase production of Antarctic basidiomycetous yeast Mrakia blollopis. PLoS One 8:e59376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tsuji M, Goshima T, Matsushika A, Kudoh S, Hoshino T (2013d) Direct ethanol fermentation from lignocellulosic biomass by Antarctic Basidiomycetous yeast Mrakia blollopis under a low temperature condition. Cryobiology 67:241–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tsuji M, Yokota Y, Kudoh S, Hoshino T (2014a) Effects of nitrogen concentration and culturing temperature on lipase secretion and morphology of the Antarctic basidiomycetous yeast Mrakia blollopis. Int J Res Eng Sci 2:49–54Google Scholar
  43. Tsuji M, Yokota Y, Kudoh S, Hoshino T (2014b) Improvement of direct ethanol fermentation from woody biomasses by Antarctic basidiomycetous yeast Mrakia blollopis under a low temperature condition. Cryobiology 68:303–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tsuji M, Kudoh S, Hoshino T (2015a) Draft genome sequence of cryophilic basidiomycetous yeast Mrakia blollopis SK-4, isolated from an algal mat of Naga-ike Lake in the Skarvsnes ice-free area, East Antarctica. Genome Announc 3:e01454–e01414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tsuji M, Yokota Y, Kudoh S, Hoshino T (2015b) Comparative analysis of milk fat decomposition activity by Mrakia spp. isolated from Skarvsnes ice-free area, East Antarctica. Cryobiology 70:293–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tsuji M, Kudoh S, Hoshino T (2016a) Ethanol productivity of cryophilic basidiomycetous yeast Mrakia spp. correlates with ethanol tolerance. Mycoscience 57:42–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tsuji M, Uetake J, Tanabe Y (2016b) Changes in the fungal community of Austre Brøggerbreen deglaciation area, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, High Arctic. Mycoscience 57:448–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tsuji M, Tanabe Y, Vincent WF, Uchida M (2018) Mrakia arctica sp. nov., a new psychrophilic yeast isolated from an ice island in the Canadian High Arctic. Mycoscience 59:54–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Turchetti B, Buzzini P, Goretti M, Branda E, Diolaiuti G, D’Agata C, Smiraglia C, Vaughan-Martini A (2008) Psychrophilic yeasts in glacial environments of Alpine glaciers. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 63:73–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Xin M, Zhou P (2007) Mrakia psychrophila sp. nov., a new species isolated from Antarctic soil. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 8:260–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Yamada Y, Komagata K (1987) Mrakia gen. nov., a heterobasidiomycetous yeast genus for the Q8-equipped, self-sporulating organisms which produce a unicellular metabasidium, formerly classified in the genus Leucosporidium. J Gen Appl Microbiol 33:455–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR)TokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Polar ScienceSOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies)TokyoJapan
  3. 3.Department of Life and Environmental Science, Faculty of EngineeringThe Hachinohe Institute of TechnologyHachinoheJapan

Personalised recommendations