Global Competitiveness

  • Edward P. St. John
  • Feven Girmay
Part of the Neighborhoods, Communities, and Urban Marginality book series (NCUM)


In this chapter, the authors examine the Detroit story within the evolving grand narrative of urban renewal, before examining the differential patterns of urban poverty within Census tract neighborhoods. The authors illustrate the patchwork pattern of neighborhood change in the early 2000s using Census tract data, as background for integrating neighborhood change in the analysis of student success, illustrating the potential of using Census tract data on neighborhoods in student success analysis.


  1. Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance. (2002). Empty promises: The myth of college access in America. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance. (2013). Inequality matters: Bachelor’s degree losses among low-income Black and Hispanic high school graduates. A Policy Bulletin For HEA Reauthorization. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. Becker, G. S. (1964/1975). Human capital: A theoretical and empirical analysis, with special consideration of education (2nd ed.). New York: National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
  4. Berkner, L., & Chavez, L. (1997). Access to postsecondary education for the 1992 high school graduates. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.Google Scholar
  5. Binelli, M. (2013). Detroit city is the place to be: The afterlife of an American metropolis. New York, NY: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  6. Boyle, K. (2001). The ruins of Detroit: Exploring the urban crisis in the motor city. Michigan Historical Review, 27(1), Detroit 300 (Spring), 109–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cherry Commission. (2004). Final report of the Lt. Governor’s Commission on Higher Education & Economic Growth. Prepared for Governor Jennifer M. Granholm. Lansing, MI. Available at
  8. Choy, S. P. (2002a). Access & persistence: Findings from 10 years of longitudinal research on students. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.Google Scholar
  9. Choy, S. P. (2002b). Findings from the condition of education, 2002: Nontraditional undergraduates. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
  10. Cooney, S. (2008). U.S. motor vehicle industry: Federal financial assistance and restructuring. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Available at
  11. Darden, J. T., & Thomas, R. W. (2013). Detroit: Race riots, racial conflicts, and efforts to bridge the racial divide. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Daun-Barnett, N., & St. John, E. P. (2012). Constrained curriculum in high schools: The changing math standards and student achievement, high school graduation and college continuation. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 20(5). Available at
  13. De Leon, E., & Schilling, J. (2017). Urban blight and public health: Addressing the impact of substandard housing, abandoned buildings, and vacant lots. Urban Institute. Available at
  14. Doucet, B. (2015). Detroit’s gentrification won’t give poor citizens reliable public services. The Guardian. Available at
  15. Feeley, D. (2016). Detroit: Realities of destructive accumulation. Alternate Routes: A Journal of Critical Social Research, 27.Google Scholar
  16. Fine, S. (1997). Michigan and housing discrimination, 1949–1968. Michigan Historical Review, 23(2) (Fall), 81–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Franklin, B. M. (2003). Race, restructuring, and education reform: The mayoral takeover of the Detroit public schools. In L. F. Mirón & E. P. St. John (Eds.), Reinterpreting urban school reform: Have urban schools failed, or has the reform movement failed urban schools? (pp. 95–125). Albany, NY: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  18. Garvin, E., Branas, C., Keddem, S., Sellman, J., & Cannuscio, C. (2013). More than just an eyesore: Local insights and solutions on vacant land and urban health. Journal of Urban Health, 90(3), 412–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Grengs, J. (2010). Job accessibility and the modal mismatch in Detroit. Journal of Transport Geography, 18(1), 42–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kaffer, N. (2017, August 30). Detroit’s economy is growing. But who’s getting the jobs? Retrieved March 24, 2018, from
  21. Klepper, S. (2002, March). The evolution of the US automobile industry and Detroit as its capital. In 9th Congress of the International Joseph A. Schumpeter Society, Gainesville, FL (pp. 22–23).Google Scholar
  22. Klier, T., & Rubenstein, J. M. (2012, May 23). Detroit back from the brink? Auto industry crisis and restructuring, 2008–11. Economic Perspectives, XXXVI(2). Available at SSRN,
  23. Levin, H. M., & McEwan, P. J. (2000). Cost effectiveness analysis: Methods and applications (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  24. McDonald, J. F. (2008). Urban America: Growth, crisis, and rebirth. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  25. McDonald, J. F. (2014). What happened to and in Detroit? Urban Studies, 51(16), 3309–3329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. McDonald, J. F. (2017). Economic structure and growth of metropolitan areas. In Sources of metropolitan growth (pp. 51–85). Routledge.Google Scholar
  27. Mirel, J., Galston, W., & Guthrie, J. (1999). Urban public schools in the twentieth century: The view from Detroit. Brookings Papers on Education Policy, 2, 9–66.Google Scholar
  28. Paulsen, M. B. (1996a). Higher education and productivity: An afterword. Thought and Action: NEA Higher Education Journal, 12(2), 135–139.Google Scholar
  29. Paulsen, M. B. (1996b). Higher education and state workforce productivity. Thought and Action: NEA Higher Education Journal, 12(1), 55–77.Google Scholar
  30. Paulsen, M. B. (2001a). The economics of human capital and investment in higher education. In M. B. Paulsen & J. C. Smart (Eds.), The finance of higher education: Theory, research, policy & practice (pp. 55–94). New York: Agathon Press.Google Scholar
  31. Paulsen, M. B. (2001b). The economics of the public sector: The nature and role of public policy in higher education finance. In M. B. Paulsen & J. C. Smart (Eds.), The finance of higher education: Theory, research, policy & practice (pp. 95–132). New York: Agathon Press.Google Scholar
  32. Poremba, D. L. (2003). Detroit: A motor city history. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing.Google Scholar
  33. Reese, L. A., Sands, G., Global Urban Studies Program, & Wayne State University. (2017, February 19). Is Detroit really making a comeback? Retrieved March 24, 2018, from
  34. Sabourin, C. (2016). Responding to the Detroit water crisis: The great lakes water authority and the city of Detroit. Washington University Journal of Law & Policy, 51, 305.Google Scholar
  35. Singleton, C. J. (1992). Auto industry jobs in the 1980’s: A decade of transition. Monthly Labor Review, 115, 18.Google Scholar
  36. St. John, E. P. (2006). Education and the public interest: School reform, public finance, and access to college. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  37. St. John, E. P., & Masten, C. L. (1990). Return on the federal investment in student financial aid. Journal of Student Financial Aid, 20(3), 4–23.Google Scholar
  38. St. John, E. P., Daun-Barnett, N., & Moronski-Chapman. (2013). Public policy and higher education: Reframing strategies for preparation, access, and success. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  39. St. John, E. P., Daun-Barnett, N., & Moronski-Chapman, K. M. (2018). Public policy and higher education: Reframing strategies for preparation, access, and success (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Surgue, T. J. (1996). The origins of the urban crisis: Race and inequality in postwar Detroit. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Sugrue, T. J. (2014). The origins of the urban crisis: Race and inequality in postwar Detroit (Updated Edition, Vol. 6). Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Turbeville, W. C. (2013). The Detroit bankruptcy. Demos, 1. Available at
  43. Vojnovic, I., Reese, L. A., Eckert, J., & Sands, G. (2016). Great expectations: Two tales of a city. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 204, 749–761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Webel, B., & Canis, B. (2015). Government assistance for GMAC/Ally financial: unwinding the government stake (Report, September 3, 2014). Washington, DC. Available at Accessed June 5, 2018.
  45. Zenk, S. N., Schulz, A. J., Israel, B. A., James, S. A., Bao, S., & Wilson, M. L. (2005). Neighborhood racial composition, neighborhood poverty, and the spatial accessibility of supermarkets in metropolitan Detroit. American Journal of Public Health, 95(4), 660–667.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward P. St. John
    • 1
  • Feven Girmay
    • 2
  1. 1.Saint HelenaUSA
  2. 2.Harvard UniversityCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations