Microscopes and Endoscopes

  • Harel DeutschEmail author


Microscopes and endoscopes helped revolutionize the surgical treatment of many disease processes. The utility of microscopes and endoscopes has increased rapidly with technological advancements in optics, mechanics, videoscopy, navigation, and computer processing. The use of microscopes and endoscopes in neurosurgery and orthopedics has been widespread in the last half century. Minimally invasive approaches to the spine require visualization through smaller portals, and therefore the use of the microscope and endoscope is essential to many minimally invasive spine surgeries.


Microscope Endoscope Magnification Light source CCD camera 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryRush University Medical CenterChicagoUSA

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