Philosophy and Biology of Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery

  • Pawel Glowka
  • Choll W. Kim
  • Kris Siemionow


The last decades have shown an ongoing progress in minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS). The development and introduction of new surgical instruments, smaller tissue retractors, advancements in microscopy, improvement in medical imaging capability, the sensitivity of C-arm, along with the introduction of intraoperative CT scanning and navigation, have allowed for less soft tissue morbidity and shorter lengths of stay. Multiple studies have demonstrated that MISS is associated with lowering the soft tissue injury, decreasing postoperative pain, and shortening lengths of stay and recovery time. The key to successfully performing MISS procedures is a thorough understanding of various anatomical relationships between soft tissue planes, approach corridors, bony anatomy, and neurological structures. Minimally invasive procedures are technically demanding and require advanced training and mentorship. This chapter focuses on the philosophy and biology of MISS.


Minimally invasive surgery Minimally invasive spine surgery Open spine surgery Multifidus muscle anatomy Paraspinal muscle injury Iatrogenic paraspinal muscle injury Iatrogenic multifidus muscle injury Key concept of minimally invasive surgery Biology of minimally invasive surgery 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pawel Glowka
    • 1
    • 2
  • Choll W. Kim
    • 3
  • Kris Siemionow
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Spine Disorders and Pediatric OrthopedicsUniversity of Medical SciencesPoiznaPoland
  2. 2.Department of OrthopaedicsUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA
  3. 3.Minimally Invasive Spine Center of Excellence, Spine Institute of San DiegoSan DiegoUSA

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