Salinity: An Overview

  • Priyanka Srivastava
  • Qiang-Sheng Wu
  • Bhoopander Giri
Part of the Soil Biology book series (SOILBIOL, volume 56)


Excessive concentration of soluble salts in soils adversely affects agricultural lands and crops and subsequently the livelihood of people all around the world. More than 100 countries are facing the problem of soil salinity along with salinization of groundwater. Irrigation of agricultural crops with saline water indeed increases the concentration of soluble salts in soil, thereby reducing the productivity of crop plants. Excessive salts primarily disrupt the cellular osmotic balance by lowering the water potential inside cells. The salts like chlorides and sulphates of sodium, calcium and magnesium along with sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate prevailed in saline soils negatively affect plant growth and productivity as they change the osmotic balance between plant roots and soil and interfere with physiological and metabolic processes of plant. Several techniques have been developed for the reclamation and management of saline and sodic soils, which involve changes in the farming system irrigation, cropping pattern and use of salt-resistant varieties as well. The efficient and balanced use of fertilizers or more likely the utilization of biofertilizers could be a better option which can serve as a cost-effective technique for resource conservation. This chapter provides brief description of salinity and its causes, global status and effects of salinity on plant growth and productivity, environment and the economy of salt-affected areas. Indeed various techniques are in practice, and there is an urgent need of more site-specific studies for the development of strategies to reclaim saline soils. Under changing climatic conditions, this problem is predicted to increase further and may cover many more areas that necessitate to find out more realistic solutions of this problem. This chapter aims to draw attention of researchers to better understand reclamation and management technologies for sustainable solutions to curtailing the problem of salinization and efficient utilization of saline soils.


Salt-affected soils Saline soils Soil reclamation Soil salinity Salt stress Crop production 


  1. Abd El-Mageed TA, Semida WM, Abd El-Wahed MH (2016) Effect of mulching on plant water status, soil salinity and yield of squash under summer-fall deficit irrigation in salt affected soil. Agric Water Manag 173:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdel Latef AA, Chaoxing H (2011) Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth, mineral nutrition, antioxidant enzymes activity and fruit yield of tomato grown under salinity stress. Sci Hortic 127:228–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abu-Sharar TM, Bingham FT, Rhoades JD (1987) Stability of soil aggregates as affected by electrolyte concentration and composition. Soil Sci Soc Am J 51:309–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akbarimoghaddam H, Galavi M, Ghanbari A, Panjehkeh N (2011) Salinity effects on seed germination and seedling growth of bread wheat cultivars. Trakia J Sci 9(1):43–50Google Scholar
  5. Ali Y, Aslam Z, Ashraf MY, Tahir GR (2004) Effect of salinity on chlorophyll concentration, leaf area, yield and yield components of rice genotypes grown under saline environment. Int J Environ Sci Technol 1(3):221–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alkhamisi S, Al-Wardy M, Ahmed M, Prathapar S (2016) Impact of reclaimed water irrigation on soil salinity, hydraulic conductivity, cation exchange capacity and macro-nutrients. J Agric Mar Sci 21:8–18Google Scholar
  7. Aroca R, Ruiz-Lozano JM, Zamarreno AM, Paz JA, García-Mina JM, Pozo MJ et al (2013) Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis influences strigolactone production under salinity and alleviates salt stress in lettuce plants. J Plant Physiol 170:47–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arora S (2017) Diagnostic properties and constraints of salt-affected soils. In: Arora S et al (eds) Bioremediation of salt affected soils: an Indian perspective. Springer, Cham, pp 41–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Arora S, Trivedi R, Rao GG (2013) Bioremediation of coastal and inland salt affected soils using halophyte plants and halophilic soil microbes. In: CSSRI Annual Report 2012–13. CSSRI, Karnal, India, pp 94–100Google Scholar
  10. Arora S, Patel P, Vanza M, Rao GG (2014) Isolation and characterization of endophytic bacteria colonizing halophyte and other salt tolerant plant species from Coastal Gujarat. Afr J Microbiol Res 8(17):1779–1788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Arora S, Singh YP, Vanza M, Sahni D (2016) Bio-remediation of saline and sodic soils through halophilic bacteria to enhance agricultural production. J Soil Water Conserv 15(4):302–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barassi CA, Ayrault G, Creus CM, Sueldo RJ, Sobrero MT (2006) Seed inoculation with Azospirillum mitigates NaCl effects on lettuce. Sci Hortic 109:8–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bhattacharyya PN, Jha DK (2012) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): emergence in agriculture. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 28(4):1327–1350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bhuva C, Arora S, Rao GG (2013) Efficacy of halophilic microbes for salt removal from coastal saline soils. In: National seminar with the theme “Microbes and Human Welfare”, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  15. Blaylock AD (1994) Soil salinity, salt tolerance and growth potential of horticultural and landscape plants. Co-operative Extension Services, University of Wyoming, Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, College of Agriculture, Laramie, WyomingGoogle Scholar
  16. Cantrell IC, Linderman RG (2001) Preinoculation of lettuce and onion with VA mycorrhizal fungi reduces deleterious effects of soil salinity. Plant Soil 233:269–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cao M, Xin P, Jin G, Li L (2012) A field study on groundwater dynamics in a salt marsh—Chongming Dongtan wetland. Ecol Eng 40:61–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chaitanya V, Rama Krishna C, Ramana V, Beebi SK (2014) Salinity stress and sustainable agriculture-a review. Agric Rev 35(1):34–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chaves MM, Pereira JS, Maroco J, Rodrigues ML, Ricardo CPP, Osorio ML, Carvalho I, Faria T, Pinheiro C (2002) How plants cope with water stress in the field? Photosynthesis and growth. Ann Bot 89:907–916PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chaves M, Flexas J, Pinheiro C (2008) Photosynthesis under drought and salt stress: regulation mechanisms from whole plant to cell. Ann Bot 103(4):551–560PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chen W, Lu S, Pan N, Wang Y, Wu L (2015) Impact of reclaimed water irrigation on soil health in urban green areas. Chemosphere 119:654–661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Childs SW, Hanks RJ (1975) Model of soil salinity effects on crop growth. Soil Sci Soc Am J 39:617–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chinnusamy V, Zhu J, Zhu JK (2006a) Gene regulation during cold acclimation in plants. Physiol Plant 126(1):52–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chinnusamy V, Zhu J, Zhu JK (2006b) Salt stress signalling and mechanisms of plant salt tolerance. Genet Eng 27:141–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dutta T, Rahman MM, Bhuiya SU, Kader MA (2015) Use of organic amendment for amelioration of salinity stress in transplanted aman rice cv. BRRI dhan41. Int J Natl Soc Sci 2(5):82–94Google Scholar
  26. Egamberdieva D, Kucharova Z (2009) Selection for root colonizing bacteria stimulating wheat growth in saline soils. Biol Fertil Soils 45:563–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Evelin H, Kapoor R, Giri B (2009) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviation of salt stress: a review. Ann Bot 104:1263–1280PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Evelin H, Giri B, Kapoor R (2012) Contribution of Glomus intraradices inoculation to nutrient acquisition and mitigation of ionic imbalance in NaCl-stressed Trigonella foenum-graecum. Mycorrhiza 22:203–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Evelin H, Giri B, Kapoor R (2013) Ultrastructural evidence for AMF mediated salt stress mitigation in Trigonella foenum-graecum. Mycorrhiza 23(1):71–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fang S, Xie B, Liu D, Liu J (2011) Effects of mulching materials on nitrogen mineralization, nitrogen availability and poplar growth on degraded agricultural soil. New For 41:147–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. FAO (1988) Soil map of the world. Revised legend, FAO–UNESCO–ISRIC. World Soil Resources Report No. 60. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  32. FAO (2002) Gender and sustainable development in drylands: an analysis of field experiences. Original and complete version of the present document. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  33. Flowers TJ, Yeo AR (1995) Breeding for salinity resistance in crop plants where next. Aust J Plant Physiol 22:875–884Google Scholar
  34. Foyer CH, Noctor G (2005) Oxidant and antioxidant signalling in plants: a re-evaluation of the concept of oxidative stress in a physiological context. Plant Cell Environ 28:1056–1071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fraire-Velázquez S, Rodríguez-Guerra R, Sánchez-Calde-rón L (2011) Abiotic and biotic stress response crosstalk in plants. In: Shanker AK, Venkateswarlu B (eds) Abiotic stress response in plants: physiological, biochemical and genetic perspectives. In Tech, Rijeka, pp 3–26Google Scholar
  36. Giri B, Kapoor R, Mukerji KG (2003) Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and salinity on growth, biomass and mineral nutrition of Acacia auriculiformis. Biol Fertil Soils 38:170–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Glick BR, Todorovic B, Czarny J, Cheng Z, Duan J, Mcconkey B (2007) Promotion of plant growth by bacterial ACC deaminase. Crit Rev Plant Sci 26:227–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Goldberg D, Gornat B, Rimon D (1976) Drip irrigation principles design and agricultural practices. Drip Irrigation Scientific Publications, p 295Google Scholar
  39. Govindasamy V, Murugeasn S, Gaikwad K, Annapurna K (2008) Isolation and characterization of ACC deaminase gene from two plants growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Curr Microbiol 57:312–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Grattan SR, Grieve CM (1999) Mineral nutrient acquisition and response by plants grown in saline environments. In: Pessarakli M (ed) Handbook of plant and crop stress. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 203–229Google Scholar
  41. Grattan SR, Grieve CM, Poss JA, Robinson PH, Suarez DL, Benes SE (2002) Reuse of saline-sodic drainage water for irrigation in California: evaluation of potential forages. In: Proceedings of the 17th World Congress on Soil Salinity, Bangkok, Thailand, pp 110–120Google Scholar
  42. Hanson BR, Grattan SR, Fulton A (2006) Agricultural salinity and drainage, revised ed. Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 3375. University of CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  43. Hashem A, Abd Allah EF, Alqarawi AA, Al-Didamony G, Al-Whibi M, Egamberdieva D, Ahmad P (2014) Alleviation of adverse impact of salinity on faba bean (Vicia faba L.) by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Pak J Bot 46(6):2003–2013Google Scholar
  44. Hayat R, Ali S, Amara U, Khalid R, Ahmed I (2010) Soil beneficial bacteria and their role in plant growth promotion: a review. Ann Microbiol 60:579–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hemapriya R, Sankar K, Dar IA (2010) Geologic and geomorphologic investigation of Gadilam river basin (India). J Environ Res Dev 4(3):750–757Google Scholar
  46. Hniličková H, Hnilička F, Martinková J, Kraus K (2017) Effects of salt stress on water status, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence of rocket. Plant Soil Environ 63(8):362–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Homaee M, Feddes RA, Dirksen C (2002) A macroscopic water extraction model for nonuniform transient salinity and water stress. Soil Sci Soc Am J 66:1764–1772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hu Y, Schmidhalter U (2002) Limitation of salt stress to plant growth. In: Hock B, Elstner CF (eds) Plant toxicology. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 91–224Google Scholar
  49. Imadi SR, Shah SW, Kazi AG, Azooz MM, Ahmad P (2016) Phytoremediation of saline soils for sustainable agricultural productivity. Plant metal interaction (emerging remediation techniques), pp 455–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. IUSS Working Group WRB (2007) World reference base for soil resources 2006, first update 2007. World Soil Resources Reports No. 103. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  51. Jaleel CA, Sankar B, Sridharan R, Panneerselvam R (2008) Soil salinity alters growth, chlorophyll content, and secondary metabolite accumulation in Catharanthus roseus. Turk J Biol 32:79–83Google Scholar
  52. Javid MG, Sorooshzadeh A, Moradi F, Sanavy SAMM, Allahdadi I (2011) The role of phytohormones in alleviating salt stress in crop plants. Aust J Crop Sci 5:726–734Google Scholar
  53. Kang NY, Cho C, Kim NY, Kim J (2012) Cytokinin receptor-dependent and receptor-independent pathways in the dehydration response of Arabidopsis thaliana. J Plant Physiol 169:1382–1391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Khatun S, Flowers TJ (1995) Effects of salinity on seed set in rice. Plant Cell Environ 18:61–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kim ST, Kim SG, Agrawal GK, Kikuchi S, Rakwa R (2014) Rice proteomics: a model system for crop improvement and food security. Proteomics 14:593–610PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Koohafkan P (2012) Water and cereals in drylands. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and Earthscan, RomeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Larney FJ, Angers DA (2012) The role of organic amendments in soil reclamation: a review. Can J Soil Sci 92:19–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Liu H, Yu L, Yu L, Wang X, Huang G (2011) Responses of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) evapotranspiration and yield to sprinkler irrigation regimes. Agric Water Manag 98(4):483–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lobell DB, Field CB (2007) Global scale climate–crop yield relationships and the impacts of recent warming. Environ Res Lett 2(1):1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Machado RM, Serralheiro RP (2017) Soil salinity: effect on vegetable crop growth. Management practices to prevent and mitigate soil salinization. Horticulture 3:30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Machado RM, Bryla DR, Vargas O (2014) Effects of salinity induced by ammonium sulfate fertilizer on root and shoot growth of highbush blueberry. Acta Hortic 1017:407–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Manchanda G, Garg N (2008) Salinity and its effects on the functional biology of legumes. Acta Physiol Plant 30(5):595–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Matosic S, Birkás M, Vukadinovic V, Kisic I, Bogunovic I (2018) Tillage, manure and gypsum use in reclamation of saline-sodic soils. Agric Conspec Sci 83(2):131–138Google Scholar
  64. Mavi MS, Marschner P, Chittleborough DJ, Cox JW, Sanderman J (2012) Salinity and sodicity affect soil respiration and dissolved organic matter dynamics differentially in soils varying in texture. Soil Biol Biochem 45:8–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Meiri A, Frenkel H, Mantell A (1992) Cotton response to water and salinity under sprinkler and drip irrigation. Am Soc Agron 84(1):44–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Melcher K, Ng LM, Zhou XE, Soon FF, Xu Y, Suino-Powell KM, Park SY et al (2009) A gate-latch-lock mechanism for hormone signalling by abscisic acid receptors. Nature 462:602–608PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mia S, Dijkstra FA, Abuyusuf M, Hossain A (2015) Synergistic effects of biochar and NPK fertilizer on soybean yield in an alkaline soil. Pedosphere 25(5):713–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mindari W, Sasongko Edi P, Kusuma Z, Syekhfani N (2015) Characteristics of saline soil and effect of fertilizer application to rice yield. Int J Agric Res 6(1):7–15Google Scholar
  69. Miransari M (2017) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil salinity. In: Wu QS (ed) Arbuscular mycorrhizas and stress tolerance of plant. Springer International, Singapore, pp 147–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mittal S, Kumari N, Sharma V (2012) Differential response of salt stress on Brassica juncea: photosynthetic performance, pigment, proline, D1 and antioxidant enzymes. Plant Physiol Biochem 54:17–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mordecai EA (2011) Pathogen impacts on plant communities: unifying theory, concepts, and empirical work. Ecol Monogr 81:429–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Munns R (2002) Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant Cell Environ 28:239–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Munns R, Tester M (2008) Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:651–681PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Nia SH, Zarea MJ, Rejali F, Varma A (2012) Yield and yield components of wheat as affected by salinity and inoculation with Azospirillum strains from saline or non-saline soil. J Saudi Soc Agric Sci 11:113–121Google Scholar
  75. Omoto E, Taniguchi M, Miyake H (2010) Effects of salinity stress on the structure of bundle sheath and mesophyll chloroplasts in NAD-malic enzyme and PCK type C4 plants. Plant Prod Sci 13:169–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Patel BB, Patel Bharat B, Dave RS (2011) Studies on infiltration of saline–alkali soils of several parts of Mehsana and Patan districts of north Gujarat. J Appl Technol Environ Sanit 1(1):87–92Google Scholar
  77. Patil SS, Kelkar TS, Bhalerao SA (2013) Mulching: a soil and water conservation practice. Res J Agric For Sci 1(3):26–29Google Scholar
  78. Rajput L, Imran A, Mubeen F, Hafeez F (2013) Salt-tolerant PGPR strain Planococcus rifietoensis promotes the growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivated in saline soil. Pak J Bot 45:1955–1962Google Scholar
  79. Ramadoss D, Lakkineni VK, Bose P, Ali S, Annapurna K (2013) Mitigation of salt stress in wheat seedlings by halotolerant bacteria isolated from saline habitats. Springer Plus 2(6):1–7Google Scholar
  80. Ramana GV, Padhy SP, Chaitanya KV (2012) Differential responses of our soybean (Glycine max L.) cultivars to salinity stress. Legume Res 35:185–193Google Scholar
  81. Rao DLN, Giller KE, Yeo AR, Flowers TJ (2002) The effects of salinity and sodicity upon nodulation and nitrogen fixation in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Ann Bot 89:563–570PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Rengasamy P (2002) Transient salinity and subsoil constraints to dryland farming in Australian sodic soils: an overview. Aust J Exp Agric 42:351–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rengasamy P (2006) World salinization with emphasis on Australia. J Exp Bot 57:1017–1023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Rengasamy P (2010) Osmotic and ionic effects of various electrolytes on the growth of wheat. Aust J Soil Res 48:120–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rhodes D, Nadolska-Orczyk A (2001) Plant stress physiology. In: Encyclopedia of life sciences, vol 10. Nature Publishing GroupGoogle Scholar
  86. Rietz DN, Haynes RJ (2003) Effects of irrigation-induced salinity and sodicity on soil microbial activity. Soil Biol Biochem 35:845–854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Said-Al A, Omer EA (2011) Medicinal and aromatic plants production under salt stress. A review. Herba Polonica 57:72–87Google Scholar
  88. Sairam RK, Rao KV, Srivastava GC (2002) Differential response of wheat genotypes to long term salinity stress in relation to oxidative stress, antioxidant activity and osmolyte concentration. Plant Sci 163:1037–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Seckin B, Sekmen AH, Turkan I (2009) An enhancing effect of exogenous mannitol on the antioxidant enzyme activities in roots of wheat under salt stress. J Plant Growth Regul 28:12–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Selvakumar G, Kim K, Hu S, Sa T (2014) Effect of salinity on plants and the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in alleviation of salt stress. In: Ahmed P, Wani MR (eds) Physiological mechanisms and adaptation strategies in plants under changing environment. Springer Nature, New York, pp 115–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Sharma DK (2014) Sustainable technologies for crop production under salt-affected soil in India. In: Proceedings of 3rd International Salinity Forum, Session 2. UC Riverside Convention Center, Riverside, CA, USAGoogle Scholar
  92. Sharma D, Chaudhari SK (2012) Agronomic research in salt affected soils of India: an overview. Ind J Agronomy 57:175–185Google Scholar
  93. Sharma OP, Sharma DN, Minhas PS (1998) Reclamation and management of alkali soils. In: Minhas PS, Sharma OP, Patil SG (eds) 25 Years of research on management of salt affected soils and use of saline water in agriculture. Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal, pp 64–84Google Scholar
  94. Shrivastava P, Kumar R (2015) Soil salinity: a serious environmental issue and plant growth promoting bacteria as one of the tools for its alleviation. Saudi J Biol Sci 22(2):123–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Silva EN, Ribeiro RV, Ferreira-Silva SL, Viégas RA, Silveira JAG (2011) Salt stress induced damages on the photosynthesis of physic nut young plants. Sci Agric 68(1):62–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Singh A (2014) In salt-affected soils agroforestry is a promising option. Indian Farm 63:19–22Google Scholar
  97. Singh G (2018) Climate change and sustainable management of salinity in agriculture. Res Med Eng Sci 6(2):1–7. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Smyth K, Elliott M (2016) Effects of changing salinity on the ecology of the marine environment. In: Solan M, Whiteley N (eds) Stressors in the marine environment. Physiological and ecological responses. Societal implications. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 161–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Soil Survey Staff (2010) Keys to soil taxonomy, 11th edn. USDA-NRCS, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  100. Sultana N, Ikeda T, Kashem MA (2001) Effect of foliar spray of nutrient solutions on photosynthesis, dry matter accumulation and yield in seawater-stressed rice. Environ Exp Bot 46:129–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Tabur S, Demir K (2010) Role of some growth regulators on cytogenetic activity of barley under salt stress. Plant Growth Regul 60:99–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Vijayaragavan H, Ramachandran TK (1989) Effect of in situ cultivation and incorporation of green manure crops on the yield of coconut. Cocos 7:26–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Vivekanandan M, Karthik R, Leela A (2015) Improvement of crop productivity in saline soils through application of saline-tolerant rhizosphere bacteria – current perspective. Int J Adv Res 3(7):1273–1283Google Scholar
  104. Wang H, Zhang MS, Guo R, Shi DC, Liu B, Lin XY, Yang CW (2012) Effects of salt stress on ion balance and nitrogen metabolism of old and young leaves in rice (Oryza sativa L.). BMC Plant Biol 12:194PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wang L, Sun X, Li S, Zhang T, Zhang W, Zhai P (2014) Application of organic amendments to a coastal saline soil in north China: effects on soil physical and chemical properties and tree growth. PLoS One 9(2):e89185PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Yildirim E, Taylor A (2005) Effect of biological treatments on growth of bean plants under salt stress. Ann Rep Bean Improv Coop 48:176–177Google Scholar
  107. Zhang J, Jia W, Yang J, Ismail AM (2006) Role of ABA in integrating plant responses to drought and salt stresses. Field Crop Res 97(1):111–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Zhu JK (2002) Salt and drought stress signal transduction in plants. Annu Rev Plant Biol 53:247–273PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Priyanka Srivastava
    • 1
  • Qiang-Sheng Wu
    • 2
  • Bhoopander Giri
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Botany, Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Khalsa CollegeUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia
  2. 2.College of Horticulture and GardeningYangtze UniversityJingzhouChina
  3. 3.Department of Botany, Swami Shraddhanand CollegeUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations