Conclusion: Mining the Past for Usable Futures: The Global Rise of the Alt-Right and the Frankfurt School

  • Christine M. Battista
  • Melissa R. Sande


This final chapter examines the global rise of the Alt-Right in the twentieth century, conceptualizing it as a transnational movement, but focusing primarily on the relationship between Europe and the United States. The chapter employs the Frankfurt School and their work within the humanities, particularly on liberation, through enlightened cultural forms and attitudes, to envision potential futures. Their anticipation of monopolies and new forms of fascism is applied to the current moment in order to highlight the reduction of critical thinking via monopolization of media. The chapter concludes with an ontological framework that underwrites the loss of critique and the reduction of critical thinking in the current moment. This ties into the decimation of the humanities and the larger question of what it then means to be human.

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© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christine M. Battista
    • 1
  • Melissa R. Sande
    • 2
  1. 1.College of Arts and SciencesJohnson & Wales UniversityDenverUSA
  2. 2.Division of HumanitiesUnion County CollegeCranfordUSA

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