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Molecular Epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis in Africa

  • Adrian MuwongeEmail author
  • Franklyn Egbe
  • Mark Bronsvoort
  • Demelash B. Areda
  • Tiny Hlokwe
  • Anita Michel
Chapter

Abstract

During the past two decades, epidemiology as a discipline has undergone marked changes resulting in a proliferation of subspecialties, one of which is molecular epidemiology. Molecular epidemiology is defined as the application of molecular markers to solve epidemiological problems, and it includes the use of taxonomic, phylogenetic, and population genetic characterization of causal organisms. It is thus a discipline that allows one to conduct a “forensic” audit of the disease dynamics in a population by superimposing host and/or pathogen molecular markers to population structure-based practices and events in time and space. This is usually done retrospectively; therefore, understanding the history of a population is critical to effectively utilize the data generated by molecular epidemiological techniques. The history of Africa was shaped by both local and international events, all of which directly or indirectly affected the health of its people and animals. This chapter describes historical and contemporary insights into the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis in Africa.

Keywords

Africa Bovine tuberculosis Cattle movement Clonal complexes Deletion analysis Mycobacterium bovis Molecular epidemiology Spoligotyping 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to all contributors to this chapter, especially Dr. Paul Bessel, at the Roslin Institute, who did the Global Information Systems (GIS) and mapping of population data used in this chapter.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adrian Muwonge
    • 1
    Email author
  • Franklyn Egbe
    • 2
  • Mark Bronsvoort
    • 3
  • Demelash B. Areda
    • 4
    • 5
  • Tiny Hlokwe
    • 6
  • Anita Michel
    • 7
  1. 1.The Roslin Institute, College of Medicine and Veterinary MedicineUniversity of EdinburghEdinburgh, MidlothianUK
  2. 2.Microbiology and Parasitology Unit, Faculty of Allied Medical SciencesUniversity of CalabarCalabarNigeria
  3. 3.Genetics and GenomicsRoslin InstituteEdinburgh, MidlothianUK
  4. 4.College of Science Engineering and Technology (CSET)Grand Canyon UniversityPhoenixUSA
  5. 5.Department of Biological SciencesMinnesota State University, MankatoMankatoUSA
  6. 6.Zoonotic Diseases SectionARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary InstituteOnderstepoortSouth Africa
  7. 7.Department Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary ScienceUniversity of PretoriaOnderstepoortSouth Africa

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