Advertisement

Bovine Tuberculosis in Nigeria: Historical Perspective, Burden, Risk Factors, and Challenges for Its Diagnosis and Control

  • Simeon Idowu Babalola Cadmus
Chapter

Abstract

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is inadvertently considered to be the only cause of tuberculosis (TB) in humans in Nigeria. As very little is known about zoonotic TB caused by M. bovis and other members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC), little consideration is given to the fact that most Nigerians live in settings that facilitate the transmission of zoonotic bovine TB (BTB) at the human−animal interface. In rural areas, people live in close contact with their animals; in the urban and peri-urban centers, unhygienic working conditions prevail, particularly in livestock markets and in abattoirs. Furthermore, the current TB control initiatives do not make any provision for zoonotic TB, thereby leading to its un-abetted spread in Nigeria. Since human and animal health are intricately linked in the Nigerian socio-economic setting and geographical space, it is imperative that we take a closer look at BTB in Nigeria. This chapter explores the burden and risk factors of BTB in Nigeria. The challenges facing its diagnosis and control are highlighted.

Keywords

Abattoir Bovine tuberculosis Cattle Molecular epidemiology Mycobacterium bovis Nigeria Prevalence Risk factors Zoonotic tuberculosis 

References

  1. Abubakar A (2007) Epidemiology of human and bovine tuberculosis in the Federal Capital Territory and Kaduna State of Nigeria. Ph.D. thesis, University of Plymouth, p 184Google Scholar
  2. Adang KL, Kela SL, Sale S (2015) Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle slaughtered at Gombe township abattoir, Gombe State, Nigeria. J Vet Med Anim Health 7(7):265–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adedipe OD (2014) Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and helminth co-infection among slaughtered cattle at Bodija municipal abattoir: economic and public health implication. M.Sc. thesis, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, p 52Google Scholar
  4. Adedipe OD, Uwalaka EC, Akinseye VO et al (2014) Gastrointestinal helminths in slaughtered cattle in Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria. J Vet Med 2014:923561, 6.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/923561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Adefegha OM, Adesokan HK, Cadmus SIB (2014) Investigation of bovine tuberculosis in a private cattle herd in South-Western Nigeria: potential risks for human infection. Afr J Epidemiol 2(1):16–20Google Scholar
  6. Alaku SO, Moruppa SM (1993) Tuberculosis condemnation in livestock slaughtered for meat in North-Eastern Nigeria. Prev Vet Med 15:67–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alhaji I (1976) Bovine tuberculosis in four northern states of Nigeria. Ph.D. thesis, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria, p 236Google Scholar
  8. Aliyu MM, Adamu JY, Bilyaminu YA (2009) Current prevalence of tuberculous lesions among slaughtered cattle in North-Eastern States of Nigeria. Rev Elev Med Vet Pays Trop 62(1):13–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Antia RE, Alonge DO (1982) Survey of abattoir data in southern Nigeria. Trop Anim Health Prod 14(2):119–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ayele WY, SD Neill J, Zinsstag MG et al (2004) Bovine tuberculosis: an old disease but a new threat to Africa. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 8:924–937Google Scholar
  11. Bikom PM, Oboegbulem SI (2000) Incidence of bovine tuberculosis in Cross River State: a retrospective abattoir study. Sahel J Vet Sci 6(1):39–43Google Scholar
  12. Cadmus SIB (2010) The transmission chain of Mycobacterium bovis from cattle to humans and within the human settings in Nigeria: facts, realities and the way forward. Trop Vet 28(1):1–12Google Scholar
  13. Cadmus SIB, Ayanwale FO (2014) Bovine tuberculosis: epidemiology, zoonotic transmission, activities, and challenges toward its control in Nigeria. In: Thoen CO, Steele JH, Kaneene JB (eds) Zoonotic tuberculosis: Mycobacterium bovis and other pathogenic mycobacteria, 3rd edn. Wiley, Ames, IA, p 397Google Scholar
  14. Cadmus SIB, Atsanda AA, Oni SO et al (2004) Bovine tuberculosis in one cattle herd in Ibadan in Nigeria. Vet Med (Praha) 49(11):406–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cadmus SIB, Palmer S, Okker M et al (2006) Molecular analysis of human and bovine tubercle bacilli from a local setting in Nigeria. J Clin Microbiol 44(1):29–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cadmus SIB, Adesokan HK, Adepoju AF et al (2008) Zoonotic risks and transmission of mycobacteria species from cows’ milk and slaughtered cattle to man in Ibadan: role of butchers. Niger Vet J 29(1):30–39Google Scholar
  17. Cadmus SI, Adesokan HK, Jenkins AO et al (2009) Mycobacterium bovis and M. tuberculosis in goats, Nigeria. Emerg Infect Dis 15(12):2066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cadmus SI, Agada CA, Onoja II et al (2010) Risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis in some selected herds in Nigeria. Trop Anim Health Prod 42:547–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cadmus SIB, Gordon SV, Hewinson RG et al (2011) Exploring the use of molecular epidemiology to track bovine tuberculosis in Nigeria: an overview from 2002 to 2004. Vet Microbiol 151:133–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cadmus SIB, Diarra B, Traore B et al (2016) Nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from tuberculosis suspects in Ibadan, Nigeria. J Pathogens 2016:6547363, 5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Claridge J, Diggle P, McCann CM et al (2012) Fasciola hepatica is associated with the failure to detect bovine tuberculosis in dairy cattle. Nat Commun 3:853.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms1840CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Damina MS, Owoludun OA, Chukwukere S et al (2011) The use of deletion analysis in the detection of Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium africanum among slaughtered cattle in Plateau State, North Central Nigeria. Niger Vet J 32(1):9–15Google Scholar
  23. Danbirni S, Okaiyeto SO, Joshua IA et al (2012) Prevalence of tuberculosis in a herd of cattle of a tuberculosis herdsman following trace back information from a hospital in Taraba State, Nigeria. J Anim Prod Adv 2(7):325–328Google Scholar
  24. Dusai DHM, Abdullahi DA (1994) Current status of bovine tuberculosis at Sokoto abattoir. Trop Vet 12:134–137Google Scholar
  25. Ejeh EF, Akinseye VO, Igwe D et al (2014a) Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis in slaughtered cattle in North-Central Nigeria and the public health implications. Afr J Med Med Sci 43(Suppl):97–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Ejeh EF, Raji MA, Bello M et al (2014b) Prevalence and direct economic losses from bovine tuberculosis in Makurdi, Nigeria. Vet Med Int 2014:904861, 6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ejeh EF, Adeshokan HK, Raji MA et al (2014c) Current status of bovine tuberculosis in Otukpo, Nigeria. J Anim Prod Adv 4(8):501–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. FAO (2014) Livestock densities (Gridded livestock of the world), Agriculture and Consumer Production Department, Animal Production and Health Division, FAO, Switzerland. http://www.fao.org/ag/againfo/resources/en/glw/GLW_dens.html. Accessed 10 April 2016
  29. Ibrahim S, Cadmus SIB, Umoh JU et al (2012) Tuberculosis in humans and cattle in Jigawa State, Nigeria: risk factors analysis. Vet Med Int 2012:865924.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/865924CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Idrisu A, Schnurrenberger P (1977) Public-health significance of bovine tuberculosis in 4 northern states of Nigeria-myco-bacteriologic study. Niger Med J 7(4):384–387Google Scholar
  31. Igbokwe IO, Madaki IY, Danburam S et al (2001) Prevalence of pulmonary tuberculous lesions in cattle slaughtered in abattoirs in North-Eastern Nigeria. Rev Élev Méd Vét Pays Trop 54(3–4):191–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jenkins AO, Cadmus SIB, Venter EH et al (2011) Molecular epidemiology of human and animal tuberculosis in Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria. Vet Microbiol 151:139–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Manley FH (1929) Bovine tuberculosis. Annual report, Veterinary Department, Northern Provinces, NigeriaGoogle Scholar
  34. Mettam H (1939) Annual report. Federal Veterinary Research Laboratory, Vom, NigeriaGoogle Scholar
  35. Müller B, Hilty M, Berg S et al (2009) African 1, an epidemiologically important clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis dominant in Mali, Nigeria, Cameroon, and Chad. J Bacteriol 191:1951–1960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nwanta JA, Umeononigwe CN, Abonyi GE et al (2011) Retrospective study of bovine and human tuberculosis in abattoirs and hospitals in Enugu State, Southeast Nigeria. J Public Health Epidemiol 3(7):329–336Google Scholar
  37. Ofukwu RA, Oboegbulem SI, Akwuobu CA (2008) Zoonotic Mycobacterium species in fresh cow milk and fresh skimmed, unpasteurised market milk (nono) in Makurdi, Nigeria: implications for public health. J Anim Plant Sci 1:21–25Google Scholar
  38. Okeke LA, Cadmus S, Okeke IOM et al (2014) Prevalence and risk factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection in slaughtered cattle at Jos South Abattoir, Plateau State, Nigeria. Pan Afr Med J 18(Suppl. 1):7PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Oluwasile BB, Awoyomi OJ, Kehinde OO (2013) Prevalence and economic loss of bovine tuberculosis in a municipal abattoir, Abeokuta, South-Western Nigeria. Niger J Anim Prod 40(2):216–223Google Scholar
  40. Opara MN, Nwaeze CN, Olaifa AK et al (2012) Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in Imo State, South-Eastern Nigeria. J Trop Med Parasitol 35:14–21Google Scholar
  41. Raufu IA, Ameh JA (2010) Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in Maiduguri Nigeria – an abattoir study. Bull Anim Health Prod Afr 58(2):119–123Google Scholar
  42. Streicher EM, Victor TC, Vander SG et al (2007) Spoligotype signatures in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. J Clin Microbiol 45:237–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. WHO (2015) Global tuberculosis report 2015, 20th edn. World Health Organization. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/191102/1/9789241565059_eng.pdf?ua=1. Accessed 27 Aug 2015

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simeon Idowu Babalola Cadmus
    • 1
  1. 1.Tuberculosis and Brucellosis Research Laboratories, Department of Veterinary Public Health & Preventive MedicineUniversity of IbadanIbadanNigeria

Personalised recommendations