Bovine Tuberculosis: Status, Epidemiology, and Public Health Implications in Burkina Faso

  • Adama Sanou


Over the past several decades, Mycobacterium bovis, the main etiological agent of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in cattle in Burkina Faso, has been isolated from cattle, horses, pigs, sheep, and humans. Because of the lack of funding, its status in other species, including wildlife, is unknown. The role of M. bovis in the human tuberculosis (TB) epidemic in Burkina Faso is also difficult to assess due to the lack of diagnostic facilities. The close contact between pastoralists and their animals and the traditional consumption of raw milk in many communities emphasize the public health risk posed by M. bovis in Burkina Faso. Although BTB presents both economic and public health problems, there are many gaps in the understanding of its epidemiology in Burkina Faso. The prevalence of the disease in cattle appears to be influenced mainly by the type of husbandry system and the uncontrolled transhumant movement of livestock, including those from neighboring BTB-infected countries. In addition, the prevalence of BTB tends to be high on farms where large numbers of cattle are housed in a confined airspace. Currently, BTB is listed as a notifiable disease in Burkina Faso, but it is inadequately controlled due to the lack of financial resources and clear policies. The high prevalence of BTB in Burkina Faso makes it necessary to apply test-and-slaughter schemes to eradicate it from cattle herds. Pasteurization of milk and improved meat inspection in slaughterhouses are necessary to reduce its zoonotic risk.


Bovine tuberculosis Burkina Faso Cattle Epidemiology Public health West Africa Spoligotypes 



The author is grateful to Dr. Daouda Kassie, researcher in geography of health at the French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development (CIRAD), for the map of Burkina Faso.


  1. Boukary AR, Thys E, Rigouts L et al (2012) Risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis and molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis strains in urban settings in Niger. Transbound Emerg Dis 59:490–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boussini H, Traore A, Tamboura HH et al (2012) Prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis in intra-urban and peri-urban dairy cattle farms in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Rev Sci Tech 31:943–951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Coulibaly ND, Yameogo KR (2000) Prevalence and control of zoonotic diseases: collaboration between public health workers and veterinarians in Burkina Faso. Acta Trop 76:53–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Delafosse A, Traore A, Kone B (1995) Isolation of pathogenic Mycobacterium strains in cattle slaughtered in the abattoir of Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Rev Elev Med Vet Pays Trop 48:301–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Gidel R, Albert JP, Lefevre M et al (1969a) Mycobacteria of animal origin isolated by the Muraz Center from 1965 to 1968: technics of isolation and identification; results. Rev Elev Med Vet Pays Trop 22:495–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gidel R, Albert JP, Retif M (1969b) Survey of bovine tuberculosis by means of tuberculin test in various regions of West Africa (Upper Volta and Ivory Coast): results and general considerations. Rev Elev Med Vet Pays Trop 22:337–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Haddad N, Ostyn A, Karoui C et al (2001) Spoligotype diversity of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated in France from 1979 to 2000. J Clin Microbiol 39:3623–3632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Letroteur R (1952) Quelques observations sur la tuberculose bovine à Bobo-Dioulasso. Bull Serv Elev Industr Anim Afr Occid Franc 5:25–32Google Scholar
  9. Müller B, Steiner B, Bonfoh B et al (2008) Molecular characterisation of Mycobacterium bovis isolated from cattle slaughtered at the Bamako abattoir in Mali. BMC Vet Res 4:26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Müller B, Hilty M, Berg S et al (2009) African 1, an epidemiologically important clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis dominant in Mali, Nigeria, Cameroon, and Chad. J Bacteriol 19:1951–1960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Regnoult MG (1963) Animal tuberculosis in west African territories of French expression. Rev Pathol Gen Physiol Clin 63:1093–1115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Rey JL, Villon A, Saliou P et al (1986) Tuberculosis infection in a cattle-breeding region in Sahelian Africa. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop 66:235–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Sahraoui N, Muller B, Guetarni D et al (2009) Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle slaughtered at two abattoirs in Algeria. BMC Vet Res 5:4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Sanou A, Tarnagda Z, Kanyala E et al (2014) Mycobacterium bovis in Burkina Faso: Epidemiologic and genetic links between human and cattle isolates. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8:e3142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Sere A (1966) La Tuberculose bovine en Haute-Volta. Imprimerie de Centre Camilli et FournieGoogle Scholar
  16. Tarnagda Z, Kanyala E, Zingué D et al (2014) Prevalence of Tuberculosis spp. species in bovine carcasses in two slaughterhouses of Burkina Faso. Int Microbiol Immunol Res 2:92–100Google Scholar
  17. Traoré A, Tamboura HH, Bayala B et al (2004) Prévalence globale des pathologies majeures liées la production laitière bovine en système d'élevage intra-urbain à Hamdallaye (Ouagadougou). Biotechnologie agronomie société et environnement (Centre de recherches agronomiques Gembloux; Faculté universitaire des sciences agronomiques de Gembloux) 8:3–8Google Scholar
  18. Vekemans M, Cartoux M, Diagbouga S et al (1999) Potential source of human exposure to Mycobacterium bovis in Burkina Faso, in the context of the HIV epidemic. Clin Microbiol Infect 5:617–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adama Sanou
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Bacteriology Laboratory of Centre MURAZ, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Centre MURAZBobo-DioulassoBurkina Faso
  2. 2.Research and Training Unit in Science and TechnologyPolytechnic University of Bobo-DioulassoBobo-DioulassoBurkina Faso

Personalised recommendations