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Sporotrichosis: The Emerging Fungal Threats to Animals

  • Shiv Shanker Gautam
  • Navneet
  • Neelesh Babu
Chapter
Part of the Fungal Biology book series (FUNGBIO)

Abstract

Sporotrichosis is a chronic granulomatous mycotic infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii, the saprophytic dimorphic fungi frequently seen in cats, dogs, horses, camels, fowls, rats, mice, hamsters, chimpanzees and humans. Cats have the severe form of cutaneous sporotrichosis and can be severe as animal transmission (cat–cat or cat–dog) and zoonotic infection (cat–human) spread by the contact of exposed areas or skin lesions. Sporothrix schenckii is distributed worldwide mainly in the tropical and subtropical regions having high humidity of 80–100% and mild temperature around 20–27 °C. This disease is documented in small outbreaks of American and Asian continents, Australia, Spain, Japan, South Africa, Germany and India. Sporothrix schenckii lives in soil and on plant matter, such as sphagnum moss, rose bushes and hay. Usually, this disease is associated with minor skin cuts and scrapes via contact with plants or soil and less frequently by inhalation of conidia. Sporothrix schenckii causes lesions in the infected sites to become more severe by animal scratches and dissemination of fungus, resulting in internal organ involvement, including lymph nodes, lungs and liver. Extracutaneous signs include sneezing, dyspnoea, nasal discharge, congestion and mucosa involvement. The diagnosis of infection includes cytological examination of exudates, histological examination of biopsy samples or fungal cultural characteristics. Treatment for disease needs long-term administration of broad-spectrum antifungal drugs, including itraconazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole and amphotericin B. Potassium or sodium iodide can be used in cutaneous and lymphocutaneous forms. The incidence of drug resistance is important for adjusting antifungal therapy and finding a newer drug to treat sporotrichosis. Plant-derived drugs may be an alternative approach for curing sporotrichosis and combating antifungal drug resistance.

Keywords

Antifungal drugs Dimorphic Feline sporotrichosis Host–pathogen interaction Plant-derived drugs Sporotrichosis Sporothrix schenckii 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shiv Shanker Gautam
    • 1
  • Navneet
    • 2
  • Neelesh Babu
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyDev Bhoomi Group of InstitutionsDehradunIndia
  2. 2.Department of Botany and MicrobiologyGurukul Kangri UniversityHaridwarIndia

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