Collateral Development of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis (IPA) in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Patients

  • Saurabh Kumar
  • Suchit Swaroop
Part of the Fungal Biology book series (FUNGBIO)


Mankind is in continuous exposure of varying infectious agents either through air, food or water. Air is the most common vector for the allergen. Amongst all the infections caused, the fungi Aspergillus is the most frequent disease-causing mould. It leads to the pathological condition depending upon the host’s immune status or pulmonary structure. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) are the two most common pulmonary diseases. These pulmonary impairments dramatically increase with the growing number of patients possessing impaired immune state which directly affects the management of malignancy, organ transplantation and autoimmune and inflammatory conditions of critically ill patients. The biggest challenge is to develop a technique which could allow us to detect the disease at earlier stages and to treat them before developing the co-morbidities. With the current advancement and development of effective and better-tolerated antifungal agents, we have been able to lower the mortality rate up to a certain level, but, still, we have much to go. To cope up with the disease and adverse effects, we should first need to explore the epidemiology and pathophysiology of the disease so that we may be able to come up with the better treatment options for the condition. The present chapter deals with the epidemiology, pathophysiology and symptoms of COPD along with the IPA.


Aspergillus Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) Pulmonary disease 



Dr. Suchit Swaroop acknowledges the Experimental and Public Health Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, for providing the facilities and space to conduct the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saurabh Kumar
    • 1
  • Suchit Swaroop
    • 1
  1. 1.Experimental and Public Health Laboratory, Department of ZoologyUniversity of LucknowLucknowIndia

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