Mycotic Infections in Bovines: Recent Trends and Insights on Pathogenicity After Post-Industrial Temperature Rise

  • Kamal Jaiswal
  • Awanish Kumar Singh
  • Suman Mishra
Part of the Fungal Biology book series (FUNGBIO)


Fungi are unique organisms as they represent a separate group in taxonomy for the purpose of classification. Some common species like Aspergillus and Candida are found everywhere on Earth, from grass fields, gardens, and playgrounds to houses, hotels, and hospitals, and even the skin, and mucous membranes have been identified as sources of fungi that cause life-threatening infections. Veterinary mycology deals with the identification of veterinary fungi, diagnosis of fungal infections, and eradication and vaccine development against invasive veterinary fungal infections. It is now a rapidly growing subject, and knowledge on the role of fungi in causing disease in livestock has been greatly increased. Mycotic diseases are the major concern for livestock production, especially in bovines, as they are globally distributed, can cause long-lasting diseases, and are also connected to the public health issue. They are responsible for a wide range of diseases, from localized infections to fatal disseminated diseases in bovines, such as aspergillosis, mucormycosis, ringworm, cryptococcosis, etc. Some of these diseases, such as mycotic abortion in cattle, are of considerable economic importance, and also of great scientific interest. Changing climatic conditions affect the biology, transmission, and epidemiology of the pathogens, as well as variations in host susceptibility via immune modulation and behavioral changes like malnutrition due to climate-induced damage to agricultural production and, therefore, low body immunity to infection and a conducive environment for pathogens, as has resulted with global climate change. Ultraviolet radiation influx may further alter immunity and cause damage to skin and genes (Patz et al., Jama. 275:217–223, 1996; Norval et al., Photochem Photobiol Sci 10:199–225, 2011). This chapter represents an overview of the different categories of fungal infections that can be encountered in animals and also assesses the effect of climate change on mycotic diseases.


Climate change Fungi Mycotic diseases Vaccine development Veterinary mycology 



This work has been supported by the University Grants Commission, India, under the Non-NET doctoral scholarship program within the framework of the doctoral study.


  1. Abou-Elmagd S, Kotb H, Abdalla K, Refai M (2011) Prevalence of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans in animals from Quena Governorate with special reference to RAPD-PCR Patterns. J Am Sci 12:20–31. (ISSN: 1545–1003)Google Scholar
  2. Achterman RR, White TC (2012) Dermatophyte virulence factors: identifying and analyzing genes that may contribute to chronic or acute infections. Int J Microbiol 4:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adeleke SI, Usman B, Ihesiulor G (2008) Dermatophytosis among itinerant Quranic scholars in Kano (Northwest) Nigeria. Nig Med Pract 53(3):33–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adl SM, Simpson AG, Farmer MA, Andersen RA, Anderson OR, Barta JR (2005) The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists. J Eukaryot Microbiol 52:399–451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Akange EN, Kwanashie CN, Bisalla M, Useh NM, Ngbede EO (2013) Evidence of Cryptococcosis in cattle in Zaria Kaduna state, Nigeria. Vet World 6(2):64–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Akbarmehr J (2011) The prevalence of cattle ringworm in native dairy farms of Sarab city (East Azarbayjan Province) in Iran. Afr J Microbiol Res 5(11):1268–1271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Akodouch L, Aissi M, Zenia S, Saadi A (2014) Importance of yeasts in the mammary infection of the Cattle in the Region of Sidi MÂ’Hamed Ben Ali, Wilaya of Relizane. Algeria J Vet Sci Technol 5:2–7Google Scholar
  8. Al-Ameed AI (2013) Isolation and identification of fungi from infected milk samples obtained from cattle with mastitis and studying the antifungal activity of Rosemary Ethanolic extract against the main strains. Diyala Agric Sci J 5(2):1–13Google Scholar
  9. Al-Ani FK, Younes FA, Al-Rawashdeh OF (2002) Ringworm infection in cattle and horses in Jordan. Acta Vet Brno 71(1):55–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Albiston HE, Gorrie CJR (1935) A preliminary note on bovine nasal granuloma in Victoria. Aust Vet J 11:72–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Alcamo J, Moreno JM, Nova´ ky B, Bindi M, Corobov R, Devoy RJN, Giannakopoulos C, Martin E, Olesen JE, Shvidenko A (2007) Europe in climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. In: Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds) Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 541–580. Scholar
  12. Al-Khalidi A, Faraj MJ, Faraj MK (2012) Isolation and identification of fungi associated with chronic respiratory infections in human and bovine. Al-Anbar J Vet Sci 5:2Google Scholar
  13. Asfour HAE, El-Metwally AE, Kotb MH (2009) Yeast as a cause of bovine mastitis and their histopathological effect on the mammary gland tissues. J Egypt Vet Med Assoc 69(4):41–72Google Scholar
  14. Bal C, Akgul H, Sevindik M, Akata I, Yumrutas O (2017) Determination of the anti- oxidative activities of six mushrooms. Fresenius Environ Bull 26:6246–6252Google Scholar
  15. Blank F (1955) Dermatophytes of animal origin transmissible to man. Am J Med Sci 229:302–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bosch J, Carrascal LM, Duran L, Walker S, Fisher MC (2007) Climate change and outbreaks of amphibian chytridiomycosis in a montane area of Central Spain; is there a link? Proc R Soc B 274:253–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carter SH, Young JL (1950) Note on the isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans from a sample of milk. J Path Bacteriol 62:271–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Casadevall A (2010) Emerging fungal pathogens- past, present, and future. Fungal diseases: an emerging challenge to human, animal, and plant health; Presentation given at the December 14–15, 2010, public workshop; Washington, DC: Forum on Microbial Threats, Institute of MedicineGoogle Scholar
  19. Cenci E, Mencacci A, Bacci A, Bistoni F, Kurup VP, Romani L (2000) T cell vaccination in mice with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. J Immunol 165:381. [PubMed]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Christiansen M (1922) Generel Mucormykose hos Svin. K VetHojsk Aarsskr 80:133–190Google Scholar
  21. Conant NF, Smith DT, Baker RD, Callaway JL, Martin DS (1954) Manual of clinical mycology, 2nd edn. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia/LondonGoogle Scholar
  22. Corbel MJ, Pepin GA, Millar PGJ (1973) The serological response to Aspergillus fumigatus in experimental mycotic abortion in sheep. J Med Microbiol 6:539–548. [PubMed] [CrossRef]CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cordes DO, Shortridge EH (1968) Systemic phycomycosis and aspergillosis of cattle. N Z Vet J 16:65–80. [PubMed] [CrossRef]CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Cordes DO, Dodd DC, O’Hara PJ (1964) Bovine mycotic abortion. N Z Vet J 12:95–100. [PubMed]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cordes DO, Carter ME, Di Menna ME (1972) Mycotic pneumonia and placentitis caused byMortierella-wolfii. II. Pathology of experimental infection of cattle. Vet Pathol 9:190–201. [PubMed] [CrossRef]CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Costa EO, Gandra CR, Pires MF, Coutinho SD, Castilho W, Teixeira CM (1993) Survey of bovine mycotic mastitis in dairy herds in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Mycopathologia 124:13–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Curtis B, Hollinger C, Lim A, Kiupel M (2017) Embolic mycotic encephalitis in a cow following Mortierella wolfii infection of a surgery site. J Vet Diagn Investig 29:725–728. [PubMed] [CrossRef]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Davidson AM, Gregory PH, Birt AR (1934) A clinical and mycological study of suppurative ringworm. Can Med Assoc J 31:587–591PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Davis CL et al (1937) Pulmonary coccidioidal granuloma. A new site of infection in cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1:209–215Google Scholar
  30. Davis CL, Anderson WA, Mccrory BR (1955) Mucormycosis in food-producing animals. A report of twelve cases. J Am Vet Med Assoc 126:261–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Dehkordi FS, Momtaz H, Doosti A (2012) Application of real-time pcr for detection of Aspergillus species in aborted ruminant foetuses. Bulgarian J Vet Med 15(1):30–36Google Scholar
  32. Dufour B, Moutou F, Hattenberger AM, Rodhain F (2008) Global change: impact, management, risk approach and health measures – the case of Europe. In: De La Rocque, S., Hendrickx, G. and Morand, S. (eds.) Climate change: impact on the epidemiology and control of animal diseases. Rev Sci Tech Off Int Epiz 27(2):529–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Durugbo EU, Kajero AO, Omoregie EI, Oyejide NE (2013) A survey of outdoor and indoor airborne fungal spora in the Redemption City, Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria. Aerobiologia 29:201–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Elad D (2011) Infections caused by fungi of the Scedosporium/Pseudallescheria complex in veterinary species. Vet J 187:33–41. Scholar
  35. El-Ashmawy WR, Abd El Hafez A, Abd El Saeed H (2015) Clinical study on dermatophytosis in calves with in vitro evaluation of antifungal activity of bergamot oil. Adv Anim Vet Sci 3(1):34–39. Scholar
  36. El-diasty EM, Ahmed MA, Okasha N, Mansour SF, El-dek SI, Abd El-khalek HM, Youssif MH (2013) Antifungal activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles against dermatophytic lesions of cattle. Romanian J Biophys 23(3):191–202Google Scholar
  37. El-Far F, Hammad H, Refai MK (1987) Cryptococcus neoformans as a cause of bovine mastitis in Egypt. J Egypt Vet Med Assoc 47:303–208Google Scholar
  38. El-Ghany A, El-Sherif MMT, El-Hamid SA (1978) Prevalence of mycotic mastitis among sheep and goats in Egypt. J Egypt Vet Med Assoc 38(2):85–90Google Scholar
  39. Emmons CW (1952) Cryptococcus neoformans strains from a severe outbreak of bovine mastitis. Mycopathologia 6:231–234Google Scholar
  40. Enoch DA, Yang H, Aliyu SH, Micallef C (2017) The changing epidemiology of invasive fungal infections. Methods Mol Biol 1508:17–65. Scholar
  41. Fadda ME, Pisano MB, Scaccabarozzi L, Mossa V, Deplano M, Moroni P, Liciardi M, Cosentino S (2013) Use of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for identification of yeast species isolated from bovine intramammary infection. J Dairy Sci 96(12):7692–7697PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fisher MC, Koenig GL, White TJ, Taylor JW (2002) Molecular and phenotypic description of Coccidioides posadasii sp. nov., previously recognized as the non-California population of Coccidioides immitis. Mycologia 94:73–84. [PubMed]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Frank A (1890) Eine mykotische Neubildung am Widerrist des Pferdes. Wschr Tierheilk Viehz 34:13–15Google Scholar
  44. Gabor LJ (2003) Mycotic pneumonia in a dairy cow caused byMortierella wolfii. Aust Vet J 81:409–410. [PubMed] [CrossRef]CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Gale P, Drew T, Phipps LP, David G, Wooldridge M (2008) The effect of climate change on the occurrence and prevalence of livestock diseases in Great Britain: a review. J Appl Microbiol 106(5):1409–1423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Galli G (1965) Observations on studies on mastitis caused by Cryptococcus albidins. Vet Ital 16:238–247Google Scholar
  47. Garcia RS, Wheat LJ, Cook AK, Kirsch EJ, Sykes JE (2012) Sensitivity and specificity of a blood and urine galactomannan antigen assay for diagnosis of systemic aspergillosis in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 26:911–919. [PubMed] [CrossRef]CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Gentles LC, O’sullivan JG (1957) The isolation of ringworm fungi from unusual hosts. Vet Rec 69:132Google Scholar
  49. Giltner LT (1918) The occurrence of coccidioidal granuloma (oidiomycosis) in cattle. J Agric Res 14:533–541Google Scholar
  50. Gleiser CA (1953) Mucormycosis in animals: a report of three cases. J Am Vet Med Assoc 123(920):441–445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Glover AD, Rech RR, Howerth EW (2011) Pathology in practice. Mycotic abortion. J Am Vet Med Assoc 239:319–321. Scholar
  52. Gomes MZR, Lewis RE, Kontoyiannis DP (2011) Mucormycosis caused by unusual mucormycetes, non-Rhizopus, −Mucor, and -Lichtheimia species. Clin Microbiol Rev 24(2):411–445PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gudding R, Lund A (1995) Immunoprophylaxis of bovine dermatophytosis. Can Vet J 36(5):302–306PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Hammer D, Engler THK (1956) Torulopsis endocarditis bei einem Bullen. Tierllrztl Umsch 11:47–51Google Scholar
  55. Hassan AA, Rashid MA, Oraby NH, El-Araby S, Minshawy MM (2013) Using of molecular biology techniques for detection of Cryptococcus neoformans in dairy cow with references to its control by nanoparticles of iron oxides (Fe2O3). Egypt J Appl Sci 28:433–448Google Scholar
  56. Hill MWM, Whiteman CE, Benjamin MM, Ball L (1971) Pathogenesis of experimental bovine mycotic placentitis produced by Aspergillus fumigatus. Vet Pathol 8:175–192. [PubMed] [CrossRef]CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Hugh-Jones ME, Austwick PKC (1967) Epidemiological studies in bovine mycotic abortion: the effect of climate on incidence. Vet Rec 81:273–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hulse EC (1952) An outbreak of mastitis in cattle caused by yeasts and the experimental reproduction of the condition. Vet Rec 64:210–211Google Scholar
  59. Innes JR, Seibold HR, Arentzen WP (1952) The pathology of bovine mastitis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans. Am J Vet Res 13(49):469–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. IPCC Climate change (2007) Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 1–986. Scholar
  61. Ito JI, Lyons JM (2002) Vaccination of corticosteroid immunosuppressed mice against invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. J Infect Dis 186:869–871. [PubMed] [CrossRef]CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Jand SK, Dhillon JS (1975) Mastitis caused by fungi. Indian Vet J 52(2):125–128Google Scholar
  63. Jensen HE, Krogh HV, Schønheyder H (1991) Bovine mycotic abortion–a comparative study of diagnostic methods. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B 38:33–40. [PubMed] [CrossRef]CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Jensen HE, Stynen D, Sarfati J, Latgé JP (1993) Detection of galactomannan and the 18 kDa antigen from Aspergillus fumigatus in serum and urine from cattle with systemic aspergillosis. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B 40:397–408. [PubMed] [CrossRef]CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Kauserud H, Lie M, Stensrud Q, Ohlson M (2005) Molecular characterization of airborne fungal spores in boreal forests of contrasting human disturbance. Mycologia 97:1215–1224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Khawcharoenporn T, Apisarnthanarak A, Mundy L (2007) Non-neoformans cryptococcal infections: a systematic review. Infection 35:51–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kirk JH, Bartlett PC (1986) Bovine mycotic mastitis. Comp Food Anim 8:106–110Google Scholar
  68. Klein E (1901) Bovine mycotic mastitis. Acta Vet Scand 1:201–220Google Scholar
  69. Klimaite J et al (2003) Etiology yeasts and other microorganisms of subclinical mastitis in cows. Veterinarija ir Zootechnika 23:5–9Google Scholar
  70. Kotb MHR (1990) Mycological and immunological studies on Cryptococcus neoformans. Ph.D. thesis, Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo Univerisity, Giza, EgyptGoogle Scholar
  71. Lebasque J (1933) Les champignons des teignes du cheval et des bovides. Thesis, ParisGoogle Scholar
  72. Lichtheim L (1884) Ueber pathogene Schimmelpilze. n. Ueber pathogene Mucorineen und die durch sie erzeugten Mykosen des Kaninchens. Z Klin Med 7:140–177Google Scholar
  73. Luo G, Mitchell TG (2002) Rapid identification of pathogenic fungi directly from cultures by using multiplex PCR. J Clin Microbial 40(8):2860–2865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Maddy KT (1954) Coccidioidomycosis of cattle in the southwestern United States. J Am Vet Med Assoc 124:456–464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Maddy K (1957) Ecologic factors possibly relating to the geographic distribution of Coccidioides immitis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 130:475–476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Madsen DE (1942) Some studies of three pathogenic fungi isolated from animals. Cornell Vet 32:383–389Google Scholar
  77. McCausland IP, Slee KJ, Hirst FS (1987) Mycotic abortion in cattle. Aust Vet J 64(6):129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Medici NP, Del Poeta M (2015) New insights on the development of fungal vaccines: from immunity to recent challenges. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 110:966–973. Scholar
  79. Menhnert B, Ernst K, Gedek J (1964) Yeasts as a cause of mastitis in cattle. Sonderdruck aus Zentrablat fur veterainedizen, pp 96–121Google Scholar
  80. Moawad A (1991) Studies on yeasts isolated from milk and faeces of cattle. M.S., Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, CairoGoogle Scholar
  81. Monga DP, Kalra DS (1971) Prevalence of mycotic mastitis among animals in Haryana. Indian J Anim Sci 41(9):813–816Google Scholar
  82. Moshref B (2004) Studies on microbial causes of mastitis in buffaloes. Ph.D., Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo UniversityGoogle Scholar
  83. Muende I, Webb P (1937) Ringworm fungus growing as a saprophyte under natural conditions. Arch Dermatol Syphilol Chicago 36:987–990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Pfaller MA (2005) Superficial and cutaneous mycosis. In: Medical microbiology, 5th edn. Elsevier Mosby, Philadelphia, pp 745–751Google Scholar
  85. Pal M (1991) Mastitis in a water buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) due to Cr. neoformans var. neoformans. Rev Iberoamericana Micol 8:89–91Google Scholar
  86. Pal M (2007) Veterinary and medical mycology, 1st edn. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  87. Pal M, Mehrotra BS (1983) Cryptococcal mastitis in dairy animals. Mykosen 26:615–616PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Paltauf A (1885) Mycosis mucorina. Eine Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Menschlichen Fadenpilzerkrankungen. Virchows Arch 102:543–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Pengov A (2002) Prevalence of mycotic mastitis in cows. Acta Vet (Beograd) 52:133–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Perlroth J, Choi B, Spellberg B (2007) Nosocomial fungal infections: epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Med Mycol 45:321–346. Scholar
  91. Petter R, Kang BS, Boekhout T, Davis BJ, Kwon-Chung KJ (2001) A survey of heterobasidiomycetous yeasts for the presence of the genes homologous to virulence factors of Filobasidiella neoformans, CNLAC1 and CAP59. Microbiology 147:2029–2036PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Porges N, Muller JF, Lockwood LB (1935) A mucor found in fowl. Mycologia 27:330–331Google Scholar
  93. Pounden WD, Amberson JM, Jaeger RF (1952) A severe mastitis problem associated with Cryptococcus neoformans in a large dairy herd. Am J Vet Res 13:121–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Prieto D, Pires A (1944) A proposito de la rhinosporidiosis.Presentacion de un caso en un caballo. Gac Vet B Aires 6:323–336Google Scholar
  95. Quinlan J, De Kock G (1926) Two cases of rhinosporidiosis in equines. S Afr J Sci 23:589–594Google Scholar
  96. Radostits OM, Done SH (2007) Veterinary medicine: a textbook of the diseases of cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, and horses. Elsevier Saunders, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  97. Radostits OM, Blood DC, Gay CC (1997) Veterinary medicine, 10th edn. Bailliere Tindall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  98. Rahman H, Patgiri GP, Boro BR (1983) Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans from a case of mastitis in a buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Vet Rec 112:16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Rao M, Narayan A (1938) Rhinosporidiosis in bovines in the Madras Presidency with a discussion on the probable modes of infection. Indian J Vet Sci 8:187–198Google Scholar
  100. Redaelli G (1957) Research about mycotic mastitis. Archo Vet Ital 8:97–121Google Scholar
  101. Refai M, El-Hariri M, Alarousy R (2017) Cryptococcosis in animals and birds: a review. Eur J Acad Essays 4(8):202–223Google Scholar
  102. Riet-Correa F, Krockenberger M, Dantas AF, Oliveira DM (2011) Bovine cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. J Vet Diagn Investig 23:1056–1060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Rippon JW (1982) Medical mycology: the pathogenic fungi and the pathogenic actinomycetes, 2nd edn. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 532–558Google Scholar
  104. Robinson VB (1951) Nasal granuloma – a report of two cases in cattle. Am J Vet Res 12:85–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Saleh HAE (2005) Mycological studies on Cr. neoformans and other yeasts isolated from clinical cases and environment. M.V.Sc. thesis, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo UniversityGoogle Scholar
  106. Saleh HA, Moawad AA, El-Hariri M, Refai MK (2011) Prevalence of yeasts in human, animals and soil sample in El-Fayoum Governorate in Egypt. Int J Microbiol 2(3):233–239Google Scholar
  107. Sanchez Botija R (1951) Contribucion al conocimiento de las micosis gastricas. An Fac Vet Madrid 3:341–350Google Scholar
  108. Saunders LZ (1948) Systemic fungus infections in animals: a review. Cornell Vet 38:213–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Sevindik M, Akgul H, Akata I, Selamoglu Z (2017) Geastrum pectinatum as an alternative antioxidant source with some biochemical analysis. Med Mycol Open Access 3:25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sharma N, Srivastava AK, Bacic G, Jeong DK, Sharma RK (2012) Epidemiology. In: Bovine Mastitis, 1st edn. Satish Serial Publishing House, Delhi, pp 231–312Google Scholar
  111. Sheridan JJ, White DS, McGarvie QD (1985) The occurrence of and organisms concerned with bovine mycotic abortion in some counties of Ireland. Vet Res Commun 9:221–226. [PubMed] [CrossRef]CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Simon J, Nichols RE, Morse EV (1953) An outbreak of bovine cryptococcosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 122(910):31–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Sipka M, Petrović D (1975) High incidence of mycotic mastitis in cattle. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B 22(5):353–361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Spellberg B (2011) Vaccines for invasive fungal infections. F1000 Med Rep 3:13. Scholar
  115. Speranzaa C (2010) Drought coping and adaptation strategies: understanding adaptations to climate change in agro-pastoral livestock production in Makueni district, Kenya. Eur J Dev Res 22:623–642. Scholar
  116. Stuart P (1951) An outbreak of bovine mastitis from which yeasts were isolated and attempts to reproduce the condition experimentally. Vet Rec 63:314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Thomson MC, Doblas-Reyes FJ, Mason SJ, Hagedorn R, Connor SJ, Phindela T, Morse AP, Palmer TN (2006) Malaria early warnings based on seasonal climate forecasts from multi-model ensembles. Nature 439:576–579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Tscherniak WS (1928) Zur Lehre von den Broncho-und Pneumonomykosen der Pferde. Arch wiss prakt Tierheilk 57:417–444Google Scholar
  119. Türkyılmaz S, Kaynarca S (2010) The slime production by yeasts isolated from subclinical mastitic cows. Acta Vet Brno 79:581–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Vink HH (1941) Mucormycose bij een varken. Tijdschr Diergeneesk 68:312–315Google Scholar
  121. Wawron W, Bochniarz M, Piech T (2010) Yeast mastitis in dairy cows in the middle-eastern part of Poland. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 54:201–204Google Scholar
  122. Weber A (2000) Mycozoonosis with special regard to ringworm of cattle. Mycoses 43(1):20–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Wint GRW, Robinson TP, Bourn DM, Durr PA, Hay SI, Randolph SE, Rogers DJ (2002) Mapping bovine tuberculosis in Great Britain using environmental data. Trends Microbiol 10:441–444PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Wiseman A, Dawson CO, Selman IE (1984) The prevalence of serum precipitating antibody toAspergillus fumigatusin adult cattle in Britain. J Comp Pathol 94:535–542. [PubMed] [CrossRef]CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Zhou Y, Ren Y, Fan C (2013) Survey of mycotic mastitis in dairy cows from Heilongjiang Province. China Trop Anim Health Prod 45:1709PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Zschokke E (1913) Ein Rhinosporidium belm Pferde. Schwelz Arch Tierheilk 55:641–650Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kamal Jaiswal
    • 1
  • Awanish Kumar Singh
    • 1
  • Suman Mishra
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologySchool of Life Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar UniversityLucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations