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Immunological Diagnosis of Fungal Disease in Animals

  • Avnish Kumar
  • Sarika Amdekar
  • Monika Asthana
Chapter
Part of the Fungal Biology book series (FUNGBIO)

Abstract

Immunodiagnostic testing in fungal infection directly depends on immunological interaction of fungi with host. Eukaryotic nature of host and fungal pathogen raise a challenge to treat infection on time and require extensive investigation on time. This chapter highlights sample collection and processing in laboratory for fungal diagnosis. Fungal antigens used for immunological diagnosis are polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and proteins. Among these, polysaccharides are most abundantly used. Major immunological techniques used for fungal diagnosis are immunofluorescence, immunoperoxidase staining, counter-immunoelectrophoresis, immunodiffusion, immunoblotting, latex particle agglutination, tube precipitin, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We review the major advances to understand the disease progression and the involvement of immunological mechanisms in host defenses against the parasite. In addition, several immunodiagnostic tests and potential antigens for diagnosis are mainly discussed in detail to present current status and future perspectives of the immunodiagnosis of fungal diseases. It is concluded that proper fungal diagnosis can be done using antigen-antibody interaction at a cheap price. However, a continued screening is required for novel antigen which allows researcher to develop new diagnostic methods to follow the progression of disease. It is also suggested that limitations of the currently available rapid tests for point-of-care diagnosis of fungal diseases can be surpassed by fusing molecular biology techniques and immunodiagnostic procedures along with other conventional devices and techniques.

Keywords

Detection ELISA Fungal antigen Galactomannan Glucan Serological test 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Authors are thankful to Dr. Rohan D’Souza, Assistant Professor, Department of Botany, St. John’s College Agra, for his due help in writing of this chapter.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Avnish Kumar
    • 1
  • Sarika Amdekar
    • 2
  • Monika Asthana
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biotechnology, School of Life SciencesDr. Bhimrao Ambedkar UniversityAgraIndia
  2. 2.Dengue/Chikungunya Group, ICMR-National Institute of VirologyPuneIndia

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