The Material Security and the Living Standard of Workers at the Chinese Eastern Railway (1922–1931)

  • M. A. KovalchukEmail author
  • S. Y. Yahimovich
Conference paper
Part of the Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies book series (SIST, volume 139)


The article deals with the problem of the material well-being of workers and employees of the Chinese Eastern Railway during the Soviet presence in the North Manchurian region up to the Japanese aggression (1922–1931). The uniqueness of the Chinese Eastern Railway was due to its leading role in the economic development of the whole Manchuria. As a result of the agreement between the USSR and China, since 1924 the entire Russian infrastructure of the Chinese Eastern Railway had become a joint Soviet-Chinese commercial enterprise. Citizens of both countries worked for the railway. The article draws attention to the indicators of wages on the railway in relation to the price situation in the area adjacent to the railway, which makes it possible to determine the standard of living of its personnel. The article indicates various wage levels – minimum, middle and maximal wages and salaries, the average wage level at the Chinese Eastern Railway, and its comparison with similar indicators at other railways of the Far East of the USSR. Social guarantees (privileges, compensations, bonuses etc.) contributed to the well-being of the personnel that allowed employees to save considerable amounts of money. The analysis of the real wages of various categories of workers of the Chinese Eastern Railway based on the ratio of nominal wages to the prices of basic commodities in Northern Manchuria led to the conclusion that the living standard of workers and employees of the railroad for local conditions remained quite high even during periods of decline in the transit activity of this railway.


The Chinese Eastern Railway Wage Living standards Living wage 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Theory and History of State and LawFar Eastern State Transport UniversityKhabarovskRussia
  2. 2.Department of Social and Humanitarian and Economic DisciplinesFar Eastern Legal Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of RussiaKhabarovskRussia

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