Advertisement

Pharmacy Services in Behavioral Health

  • Carol A. OttEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter provides an overview of community pharmacists, who are the most accessible healthcare professionals and can provide evaluation of medication adherence, patient counseling, insurance assessments, and mental health screenings with referral to mental health providers. Education in schools and colleges of pharmacy has focused on decreasing pharmacist stigma and negative images of people with mental disorders and increasing the comfort level of the pharmacist for interacting with patients through the use of motivational interviewing and shared decision-making. Pharmacists are uniquely positioned to fill the gap in available mental health providers, both in the community pharmacy and clinical practice setting.

Keywords

Pharmacy services Behavioral health Community pharmacies Insurance coverage Preferred drug lists Patient assistance programs Clinical pharmacy Medication 

References

  1. Amin, K., Farley, J. F., Maciejewski, M. L., & Domino, M. E. (2017). Effect of Medicaid policy changes on medication adherence: Differences by baseline adherence. Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy, 23(3), 337–345.  https://doi.org/10.18553/jmcp.2017.23.3.337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnold, M. E., Buys, L., & Fullas, F. (2015). Impact of pharmacist intervention in conjunction with outpatient physician follow-up visits after hospital discharge on readmission rate. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 72(11 Suppl 1), S36–S42.  https://doi.org/10.2146/sp150011CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Benson, C. J., Joshi, K., Lapane, K. L., & Fastenau, J. (2015). Evaluation of a comprehensive information and assistance program for patients with schizophrenia treated with long-acting injectable antipsychotics. Current Medical Research and Opinion, 31(7), 1437–1448.  https://doi.org/10.1185/03007995.2015.1050365CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Calogero, S., & Caley, C. F. (2017). Supporting patients with mental illness: Deconstructing barriers to community pharmacist access. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, 57(2), 248–255.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2016.12.066CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Cavanaugh, J. J., Lindsey, K. N., Shilliday, B. B., & Ratner, S. P. (2015). Pharmacist-coordinated multidisciplinary hospital follow-up visits improve patient outcomes. Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy, 21(3), 256–260.  https://doi.org/10.18553/jmcp.2015.21.3.256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dalton, K., & Byrne, S. (2017). Role of the pharmacist in reducing healthcare costs: Current insights. Integrated Pharmacy Research & Practice, 6, 37–46.  https://doi.org/10.2147/iprp.S108047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Di Lorenzo, R., Galliani, A., Guicciardi, A., Landi, G., & Ferri, P. (2014). A retrospective analysis focusing on a group of patients with dual diagnosis treated by both mental health and substance use services. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 10, 1479–1488.  https://doi.org/10.2147/ndt.S65896CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Doshi, J. A., Li, P., Desai, S., & Marcus, S. C. (2017). Impact of Medicaid prescription copayments on use of antipsychotics and other medications in patients with schizophrenia. Journal of Medical Economics, 20(12), 1252–1260.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13696998.2017.1365720CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Gallagher, J., McCarthy, S., & Byrne, S. (2014). Economic evaluations of clinical pharmacist interventions on hospital inpatients: A systematic review of recent literature. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, 36(6), 1101–1114.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11096-014-0008-9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Gilmore, V., Efird, L., Fu, D., LeBlanc, Y., Nesbit, T., & Swarthout, M. (2015). Implementation of transitions-of-care services through acute care and outpatient pharmacy collaboration. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 72(9), 737–744.  https://doi.org/10.2146/ajhp140504CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Grim, K., Rosenberg, D., Svedberg, P., & Schon, U. K. (2016). Shared decision-making in mental health care-a user perspective on decisional needs in community-based services. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being, 11, 30563.  https://doi.org/10.3402/qhw.v11.30563CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Larrison, C. R., Hack-Ritzo, S., Koerner, B. D., Schoppelrey, S. L., Ackerson, B. J., & Korr, W. S. (2011). State budget cuts, health care reform, and a crisis in rural community mental health agencies. Psychiatric Services, 62(11), 1255–1257.  https://doi.org/10.1176/ps.62.11.pss6211_1255CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Lê Cook, B., Doksum, T., Chen, C. N., Carle, A., & Alegria, M. (2013). The role of provider supply and organization in reducing racial/ethnic disparities in mental health care in the U.S. Social Science & Medicine, 84, 102–109.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.02.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Luetsch, K., & Burrows, J. (2018). From transitions to transformation: A study of pharmacists developing patient-centered communication skills. Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy, 14(7), 686–694.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2017.08.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Marcus, S. C., Zummo, J., Pettit, A. R., Stoddard, J., & Doshi, J. A. (2015). Antipsychotic adherence and rehospitalization in schizophrenia patients receiving oral versus long-acting injectable antipsychotics following hospital discharge. Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy, 21(9), 754–768.  https://doi.org/10.18553/jmcp.2015.21.9.754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. McGovern, M. P., Lambert-Harris, C., Gotham, H. J., Claus, R. E., & Xie, H. (2014). Dual diagnosis capability in mental health and addiction treatment services: An assessment of programs across multiple state systems. Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 41(2), 205–214.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10488-012-0449-1CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Morant, N., Kaminskiy, E., & Ramon, S. (2016). Shared decision making for psychiatric medication management: Beyond the micro-social. Health Expectations, 19(5), 1002–1014.  https://doi.org/10.1111/hex.12392CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Nkansah, N., Mostovetsky, O., Yu, C., Chheng, T., Beney, J., Bond, C. M., & Bero, L. (2010). Effect of outpatient pharmacists’ non-dispensing roles on patient outcomes and prescribing patterns. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 7, Cd000336.  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD000336.pub2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ovsag, K., Hydery, S., & Mousa, S. A. (2008). Preferred drug lists: Potential impact on healthcare economics. Vascular Health and Risk Management, 4(2), 403–413.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Padwa, H., Guerrero, E. G., Braslow, J. T., & Fenwick, K. M. (2015). Barriers to serving clients with co-occurring disorders in a transformed mental health system. Psychiatric Services, 66(5), 547–550.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.201400190CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Phokeo, V., Sproule, B., & Raman-Wilms, L. (2004). Community pharmacists’ attitudes toward and professional interactions with users of psychiatric medication. Psychiatric Services, 55(12), 1434–1436.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.55.12.1434CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Ramalho de Oliveira, D., Brummel, A. R., & Miller, D. B. (2010). Medication therapy management: 10 years of experience in a large integrated health care system. Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy, 16(3), 185–195.  https://doi.org/10.18553/jmcp.2010.16.3.185CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Richardson, T. E., O’Reilly, C. L., & Chen, T. F. (2014). A comprehensive review of the impact of clinical pharmacy services on patient outcomes in mental health. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, 36(2), 222–232.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11096-013-9900-yCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Ridley, D. B., & Axelsen, K. J. (2006). Impact of Medicaid preferred drug lists on therapeutic adherence. PharmacoEconomics, 24(Suppl 3), 65–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rubio-Valera, M., Chen, T. F., & O’Reilly, C. L. (2014). New roles for pharmacists in community mental health care: A narrative review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11(10), 10967–10990.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph111010967CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Salvo, M. C., & Cannon-Breland, M. L. (2015). Motivational interviewing for medication adherence. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, 55(4), e354–e361.; quiz e362-353.  https://doi.org/10.1331/JAPhA.2015.15532CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. The Center for Consumer Information & Insurance Oversight. (2018). The mental health parity and addiction equality act (MHPAEA). [web page]. Baltimore, MD: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. https://www.cms.gov/cciio/programs-and-initiatives/other-insurance-protections/mhpaea_factsheet.htmlGoogle Scholar
  28. Wright, W. A., Gorman, J. M., Odorzynski, M., Peterson, M. J., & Clayton, C. (2016). Integrated pharmacies at community mental health centers: Medication adherence and outcomes. Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy, 22(11), 1330–1336.  https://doi.org/10.18553/jmcp.2016.16004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Younas, M., Bradley, E., Holmes, N., Sud, D., & Maidment, I. D. (2016). Mental health pharmacists views on shared decision-making for antipsychotics in serious mental illness. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, 38(5), 1191–1199.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11096-016-0352-zCrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Purdue University College of PharmacyIndianapolisUSA
  2. 2.Eskenazi Health/Midtown Community Mental HealthIndianapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations