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Fungi Present in Soils of Antarctica

  • Eldon Carlos Queres Gomes
  • Hebert Morais Figueredo
  • Fábio Soares de Oliveira
  • Carlos Ernesto Gonçalves Reynaud Schaefer
  • Roberto Ferreira Michel
  • Carlos Augusto Rosa
  • Luiz Henrique Rosa
Chapter

Abstract

Fungi are cosmopolitan organisms capable of colonising different types of soils in different ecosystems of the planet. Soils represent the main source of isolation of fungi studied in Antarctica, in which different species ranging from endemic to cosmopolitan species adapted to the cold are found. Despite the extreme conditions, different types of soils occur in Antarctica, such as those present in the Antarctic Peninsula, as well as those characterised as ultraligotrophic in continental Antarctica. These soils vary in their physicochemical characteristics such as the presence of organic matter with varying concentrations of carbon, nitrogen, and minerals. In recent years, some fungal communities have been characterised in the soils of different regions of Antarctica, such as morainic, sulphur-rich, thermal, ornithogenic, oligotrophic, and ultraoligotrophic soils. Owing to their high genetic, biochemical, and physiological plasticity, fungi are able to survive, colonise, and disperse in different types of Antarctic soils and act in different ways in the region. Their main ecological functions are decomposition and nutrient cycling in extreme environments such as those in Antarctica. This chapter aims to present the current picture of the diversity of fungi present in the different types of Antarctic soils, their possible functions and ecological relations, as well as their potential in possible biotechnological applications.

Keywords

Antarctica Soil Fungi Diversity 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eldon Carlos Queres Gomes
    • 1
  • Hebert Morais Figueredo
    • 1
  • Fábio Soares de Oliveira
    • 2
  • Carlos Ernesto Gonçalves Reynaud Schaefer
    • 3
  • Roberto Ferreira Michel
    • 4
  • Carlos Augusto Rosa
    • 1
  • Luiz Henrique Rosa
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de MicrobiologiaInstituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas GeraisBelo HorizonteBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de GeografiaUniversidade Federal de Minas GeraisBelo HorizonteBrazil
  3. 3.Departamento de SolosUniversidade Federal de ViçosaViçosaBrazil
  4. 4.Departamento de Ciências Agrárias e AmbientaisUniversidade Estadual de Santa CruzIlhéusBrazil

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