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Antarctic Yeasts as a Source of Enzymes for Biotechnological Applications

  • Maria Martha Martorell
  • Lucas Adolfo Mauro Ruberto
  • Lucía Inés Castellanos de Figueroa
  • Walter Patricio Mac Cormack
Chapter

Abstract

Psychrophilic and psychrotrophic yeasts able to live in extremely cold environments like Antarctica produce cold-active enzymes as part of their metabolic adaptation mechanisms. Some of these enzymes could be used for industrial and biotechnological applications requiring high activity at mild/cold temperatures or fast inactivation by heat. In this chapter, the basic principles for the screening of cold-active enzymes and their potential industrial applications (textiles, food and dairy products, brewing and wine industry, and laundry, among others) are presented. When it comes to the search of yeasts exhibiting cold-enzyme production, Antarctica is one of the most promising environments to work in. Cold-active hydrolytic enzymes from Antarctic yeasts such as lipases, proteases, cellulases, and amylases are mentioned in this chapter. In addition, pectinolytic, lignocellulolytic, and oil-related (lipase and esterase) enzymes produced by these microorganisms are presented, focusing on yeast isolation, screening for enzyme producers, and purification and characterization of specific cold-active enzymes. The near future should find us discussing the regulation of the use of Antarctic yeast as a source of cold enzymes, and once this point is clarified and approved by the international forums on Antarctic activities regulation, the development and scaling up of these biological products may be addressed.

Keywords

Cold enzymes Yeasts Antarctica Psychrophilic Psychrotrophic 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Martha Martorell
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lucas Adolfo Mauro Ruberto
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Lucía Inés Castellanos de Figueroa
    • 4
    • 5
  • Walter Patricio Mac Cormack
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Instituto Antártico Argentino (IAA)Buenos AiresArgentina
  2. 2.Cátedra de Biotecnología, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos AiresCiudad Autónoma de Buenos AiresArgentina
  3. 3.Instituto de Nanobiotecnología (NANOBIOTEC-UBA-CONICET)Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos AiresArgentina
  4. 4.Planta Piloto de Procesos Industriales Microbiológicos (PROIMI-CONICET)San Miguel de TucumánArgentina
  5. 5.Universidad Nacional de Tucumán (UNT)San Miguel de TucumánArgentina

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