Advertisement

Εthology, Evolutionary Psychology, Sociobiology, and Evolutionary Psychiatry

  • Kostas N. Fountoulakis
Chapter

Abstract

Sociology, ethology, and sociobiology are disciplines that deal with the interplay between biological factors and social behavior and the development of human society and civilization from a Darwinian evolutionary perspective. This chapter discusses the basic principles behind these scientific disciplines and their contribution to our knowledge concerning human behavior and human societies by describing fundamental mechanisms and processes.

Keywords

Εthology Evolutionary psychology Sociobiology Evolutionary psychiatry Darwinian psychiatry 

References

  1. Abbot P, Abe J, Alcock J, Alizon S, Alpedrinha JA, Andersson M, Andre JB, van Baalen M, Balloux F, Balshine S, Barton N, Beukeboom LW, Biernaskie JM, Bilde T, Borgia G, Breed M, Brown S, Bshary R, Buckling A, Burley NT, Burton-Chellew MN, Cant MA, Chapuisat M, Charnov EL, Clutton-Brock T, Cockburn A, Cole BJ, Colegrave N, Cosmides L, Couzin ID, Coyne JA, Creel S, Crespi B, Curry RL, Dall SR, Day T, Dickinson JL, Dugatkin LA, El Mouden C, Emlen ST, Evans J, Ferriere R, Field J, Foitzik S, Foster K, Foster WA, Fox CW, Gadau J, Gandon S, Gardner A, Gardner MG, Getty T, Goodisman MA, Grafen A, Grosberg R, Grozinger CM, Gouyon PH, Gwynne D, Harvey PH, Hatchwell BJ, Heinze J, Helantera H, Helms KR, Hill K, Jiricny N, Johnstone RA, Kacelnik A, Kiers ET, Kokko H, Komdeur J, Korb J, Kronauer D, Kummerli R, Lehmann L, Linksvayer TA, Lion S, Lyon B, Marshall JA, McElreath R, Michalakis Y, Michod RE, Mock D, Monnin T, Montgomerie R, Moore AJ, Mueller UG, Noe R, Okasha S, Pamilo P, Parker GA, Pedersen JS, Pen I, Pfennig D, Queller DC, Rankin DJ, Reece SE, Reeve HK, Reuter M, Roberts G, Robson SK, Roze D, Rousset F, Rueppell O, Sachs JL, Santorelli L, Schmid-Hempel P, Schwarz MP, Scott-Phillips T, Shellmann-Sherman J, Sherman PW, Shuker DM, Smith J, Spagna JC, Strassmann B, Suarez AV, Sundstrom L, Taborsky M, Taylor P, Thompson G, Tooby J, Tsutsui ND, Tsuji K, Turillazzi S, Ubeda F, Vargo EL, Voelkl B, Wenseleers T, West SA, West-Eberhard MJ, Westneat DF, Wiernasz DC, Wild G, Wrangham R, Young AJ, Zeh DW, Zeh JA, Zink A (2011) Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality. Nature 471(7339):E1–E4.; author reply E9–10.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09831 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Alcock J (2001) The triumph of sociobiology. Oxford University Press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen NB, Badcock PB (2003) The social risk hypothesis of depressed mood: evolutionary, psychosocial, and neurobiological perspectives. Psychol Bull 129(6):887–913.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.129.6.887 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Allport GW (1985) The historical background of social psychology. In: Lindzey G, Aronson E (eds) The handbook of social psychology. McGraw Hill, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  5. Allport GW, Odbert HS (1936) Trait-names: a psycho-lexical study. Psychological Review Company, Albany, NYGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson JL, Crawford CB (1993) Trivers-willard rules for sex allocation: when do they maximize expected grandchildren in humans? Hum Nat 4(2):137–174.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02734114 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Andrews PW (2001) The psychology of social chess and the evolution of attribution mechanisms: explaining the fundamental attribution error. Evol Hum Behav 22(1):11–29PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Ardrey R (2014) The social contract: a personal inquiry into the evolutionary sources of order and disorder. Story Design LTD, Ames, IAGoogle Scholar
  9. Baars B (1993) Cognitive theory of consciousness. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  10. Barash D (2003a) Revolutionary biology: the new, gene-centered view of life. Transaction Publishers, Piscataway, NJGoogle Scholar
  11. Barash D (2003b) The survival game: how game theory explains the biology of cooperation and competition. Henry Holt and Company, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  12. Barash D, Lipton J (2001) Gender gap: the biology of male-female differences. Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, NJGoogle Scholar
  13. Barash D, Lipton J (2002) The myth of monogamy: fidelity and infidelity in animals and people. Henry Holt, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  14. Barkow J, Cosmides L, Tooby J (1995) The adapted mind: evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  15. Barnard A (1999) Modem hunter-gatherers and early symbolic culture. In: Dunbar R, Knight C, Power C (eds) The evolution of culture: an interdisciplinary view. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJGoogle Scholar
  16. Barrett D (2007) The R/Evolutionary science behind our weight and fitness crisis. W.W. Norton, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  17. Barrett D (2010) Supernormal stimuli: how primal urges overran their evolutionary purpose. W.W. Norton, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  18. Bateman AJ (1948) Intra-sexual selection in Drosophila. Heredity 2(3):349–821PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Beit-Hallahmi B (2012) Connecting biological concepts and religious behavior. Behav Brain Sci 35(2):80–81.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X11000938 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Belke TW, Garland T Jr (2007) A brief opportunity to run does not function as a reinforcer for mice selected for high daily wheel-running rates. J Exp Anal Behav 88(2):199–213PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bellis MA, Hughes K, Hughes S, Ashton JR (2005) Measuring paternal discrepancy and its public health consequences. J Epidemiol Community Health 59(9):749–754.  https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2005.036517 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Belsky J (1999) Modern evolutionary theory and patterns of attachment. In: Cassidy J, Shaver P (eds) Handbook of attachment: theory, research, and clinical applications. Guilford, New York, NY, pp 141–161Google Scholar
  23. Bem D (1970) Beliefs, attitudes, and human affairs. Brooks/Cole, Belmont, CAGoogle Scholar
  24. Berent I, Lennertz T, Jun J, Moreno MA, Smolensky P (2008) Language universals in human brains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105(14):5321–5325.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0801469105 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Block J, Funder DC (1986) Social roles and social perception: individual differences in attribution and error. J Pers Soc Psychol 51(6):1200–1207PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. van Bodegom D, Rozing MP, May L, Meij HJ, Thomese F, Zwaan BJ, Westendorp RG (2013) Socioeconomic status determines sex-dependent survival of human offspring. Evol Med Public Health 2013(1):37–45.  https://doi.org/10.1093/emph/eot002 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Botwin MD, Buss DM, Shackelford TK (1997) Personality and mate preferences: five factors in mate selection and marital satisfaction. J Pers 65(1):107–136PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Bowlby J (1969) Attachment. Basic Books, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  29. Broude GJ (1994) Marriage, family, and relationships: a cross cultural encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, CAGoogle Scholar
  30. Brown DE (1991) Human universals. McGraw Hill, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  31. Burkhardt RW (2005) Patterns of behavior: Konrad Lorenz, Niko Tinbergen, and the founding of ethology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, ILGoogle Scholar
  32. Burnham TC, Chapman JF, Gray PB, McIntyre MH, Lipson SF, Ellison PT (2003) Men in committed, romantic relationships have lower testosterone. Horm Behav 44(2):119–122PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Burt A, Trivers R (2006) Genes in conflict: the biology of selfish genetic elements. Belknap Press, Cambridge, MACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Buss DM (1984) Evolutionary biology and personality psychology. Toward a conception of human nature and individual differences. Am Psychol 39(10):1135–1147PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Buss DM (1988) From vigilance to violence: tactics of mate retention in American undergraduates. Ethol Sociobiol 9(5):291–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Buss DM (1989) Conflict between the sexes: strategic interference and the evocation of anger and upset. J Pers Soc Psychol 56(5):735–747PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Buss DM (1991) Evolutionary personality psychology. Annu Rev Psychol 42:459–491.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.42.020191.002331 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Buss DM (1992) Manipulation in close relationships: the five factor model of personality in interactional context. J Pers 60:477–499PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Buss DM (1995) Psychological sex differences. Origins through sexual selection. Am Psychol 50(3):164–168. discussion 169–171PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Buss DM (1996) Social adaptation and five major factors of personality. In: Wiggins JS (ed) The five-factor model of personality: theoretical perspectives. Guilford, New York, NY, pp 180–207Google Scholar
  41. Buss DM (2001) Human nature and culture: an evolutionary psychological perspective. J Pers 69(6):955–978PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Buss D (2005) The handbook of evolutionary psychology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJGoogle Scholar
  43. Buss DM (2006) The evolutionary genetics of personality: does mutation load signal relationship load? Behav Brain Sci 29:409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Buss DM (2009) How can evolutionary psychology successfully explain personality and individual differences? Perspect Psychol Sci 4(4):359–366.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6924.2009.01138.x CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Buss DM (2011) Evolutionary psychology. Pearson, Boston, MAGoogle Scholar
  46. Buss DM, Barnes M (1986) Preferences in human mate selection. J Pers Soc Psychol 50(3):559–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Buss DM, Duntley JD (2008) Adaptations for exploitation. Group Dynamics 12:53–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Buss DM, Schmitt DP (1993) Sexual strategies theory: an evolutionary perspective on human mating. Psychol Rev 100(2):204–232PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Buss DM, Larsen RJ, Westen D, Semmelroth J (1992) Sex differences in jealousy: evolution, physiology, and psychology. Psychol Sci 3(4):251–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Buss DM, Haselton MG, Shackelford TK, Bleske AL, Wakefield JC (1998) Adaptations, exaptations, and spandrels. Am Psychol 53(5):533–548PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Cameron EZ, Dalerum F (2009) A Trivers-Willard effect in contemporary humans: male-biased sex ratios among billionaires. PLoS One 4(1):e4195.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004195 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Camperio Ciani AS, Capiluppi C, Veronese A, Sartori G (2007) The adaptive value of personality differences revealed by small island population dynamics. Eur J Personal 21:3–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Camperio Ciani A, Cermelli P, Zanzotto G (2008) Sexually antagonistic selection in human male homosexuality. PLoS One 3(6):e2282.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002282 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Cattell RB, Eber HW, Tatsuoka MM (1970) Handbook for the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, Champaign, ILGoogle Scholar
  55. Chacon-Puignau GC, Jaffe K (1996) Sex ratio at birth deviations in modern Venezuela: the Trivers-Willard effect. Soc Biol 43(3-4):257–270PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Chagnon NA (1988) Life histories, blood revenge, and warfare in a tribal population. Science 239(4843):985–992.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.239.4843.985 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Charnov EL, Ernest SK (2006) The offspring-size/clutch-size trade-off in mammals. Am Nat 167(4):578–582.  https://doi.org/10.1086/501141 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Chen C, Burton M, Greenberger E, Dmitrieva J (1999) Population migration and the variation of dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) allele frequencies around the globe. Evol Hum Behav Brain Sci 20:309–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Chomsky N (2005) Universals of human nature. Psychother Psychosom 74(5):263–268.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000086316 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Chomsky N, McGilvray J (2012) The science of language. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Clutton-Brock TH, Vincent AC (1991) Sexual selection and the potential reproductive rates of males and females. Nature 351(6321):58–60.  https://doi.org/10.1038/351058a0 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Comins HN, Hamilton WD, May RM (1980) Evolutionarily stable dispersal strategies. J Theor Biol 82(2):205–230PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Confer JC, Easton JA, Fleischman DS, Goetz CD, Lewis DM, Perilloux C, Buss DM (2010) Evolutionary psychology. Controversies, questions, prospects, and limitations. Am Psychol 65(2):110–126.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018413 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Conroy-Beam D, Buss DM, Pham MN, Shackelford TK (2015) How sexually dimorphic are human mate preferences? Pers Soc Psychol Bull 41(8):1082–1093.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167215590987 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Cosmides L, Tooby J (2005) Neurocognitive adaptations designed for social exchange. In: Buss D (ed) The handbook of evolutionary psychology. Wiley, New York, NY, pp 584–627Google Scholar
  66. Costa PT, McCrae RR (1985) The NEO personality inventory manual. Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa, FLGoogle Scholar
  67. Cronk L (2007) Boy or girl: gender preferences from a Darwinian point of view. Reprod Biomed Online 15(Suppl 2):23–32PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Crook JH, Crook SJ (1988) Tibetan polyandry: problems of adaptation and fitness. In: Betzig L, Borgerhoff Mulder M, Turke P (eds) Human reproductive behavior: a Darwinian perspective. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  69. Cummings M, Zahn-Waxler C, Iannotti R (1991) Altruism and aggression: biological and social origins. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  70. D’Eath RB, Roehe R, Turner SP, Ison SH, Farish M, Jack MC, Lawrence AB (2009) Genetics of animal temperament: aggressive behaviour at mixing is genetically associated with the response to handling in pigs. Animal 3(11):1544–1554.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731109990528 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. D’Onofrio BM, Eaves LJ, Murrelle L, Maes HH, Spilka B (1999) Understanding biological and social influences on religious affiliation, attitudes, and behaviors: a behavior genetic perspective. J Pers 67(6):953–984PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Daly M, Wilson M (1983) Sex, evolution, and behavior, 2nd edn. Wadsworth, Belmont, CAGoogle Scholar
  73. Daly M, Wilson M (1987) The Darwinian psychology of discriminative parental solicitude. Nebraska symposium on motivation nebraska symposium on motivation 35:91–144PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Daly M, Wilson M (1991) A reply to Gelles: stepchildren are disproportionately abused, and diverse forms of violencecan share causal factors. Hum Nat 2(4):419–426.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02692199 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Daly M, Wilson M (2005a) Carpe diem: adaptation and devaluing the future. Q Rev Biol 80(1):55–60PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Daly M, Wilson M (2005b) The “Cinderella effect” is no fairy tale. Trends Cogn Sci 9(11):507–508.; author reply 508–510.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2005.09.007 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Daly M, Salmon C, Wilson MIE (1997) Kinship: the conceptual hole in psychological studies of social cognition and close relationships. In: Simpson J, Kenrick D (eds) Evolutionary social psychology. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahnaw, NJ, pp 265–296Google Scholar
  78. Darwin C (1859) On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. John Murray, LondonGoogle Scholar
  79. Darwin C (1871) The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex. John Murray, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Darwin C (1872) The expression of the emotions in man and animals. John Murray, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Dawkins R (1976) The selfish gene. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  82. Deacon T (1997) The symbolic species: the co-evolution of language and the brain. W.W. Norton, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  83. Deichmann U (1992) Biologists under Hitler: expulsion, careers, research. Harvard University Press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  84. Denissen JJA, Penke L (2008a) Motivational individual reaction norms underlying the five-factor model of personality: first steps towards a theory-based conceptual framework. J Res Pers 42:1285–1302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Denissen JJA, Penke L (2008b) Neuroticism predicts reactions to cues of social inclusion. Eur J Personal 22:497–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Di Vincenzo F, Manzi G (2013) Social learning and origin of the language faculty by means of natural selection. J Anthropol Sci 91:261–267.  https://doi.org/10.4436/jass.91017 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. Dunbar R, Barret L (2007) The Oxford handbook of evolutionary psychology. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  88. Dunfield KA, Johnson SC (2015) Variability in social reasoning: the influence of attachment security on the attribution of goals. Front Psychol 6:1487.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01487 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Dunsworth HM, Warrener AG, Deacon T, Ellison PT, Pontzer H (2012) Metabolic hypothesis for human altriciality. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(38):15212–15216.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1205282109 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. Durand PM, Rashidi A, Michod RE (2011) How an organism dies affects the fitness of its neighbors. Am Nat 177(2):224–232.  https://doi.org/10.1086/657686 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Ebstein RP (2006) The molecular genetic architecture of human personality: beyond self-report questionnaires. Mol Psychiatry 11(5):427–445.  https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.mp.4001814 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Eccles JC (1992) Evolution of consciousness. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89(16):7320–7324PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Eisenberg DT, Campbell B, Gray PB, Sorenson MD (2008) Dopamine receptor genetic polymorphisms and body composition in undernourished pastoralists: an exploration of nutrition indices among nomadic and recently settled Ariaal men of northern Kenya. BMC Evol Biol 8:173.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-8-173 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Ekman P (1965) Differential communication of affect by head and body cues. J Pers Soc Psychol 2(5):726–735PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Ekman P (1980) Asymmetry in facial expression. Science 209(4458):833–834PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. Ekman P (1992a) Are there basic emotions? Psychol Rev 99(3):550–553PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Ekman P (1992b) Facial expressions of emotion: an old controversy and new findings. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 335(1273):63–69.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1992.0008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Ekman P (1993) Facial expression and emotion. Am Psychol 48(4):384–392PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. Ekman P (1994) Strong evidence for universals in facial expressions: a reply to Russell’s mistaken critique. Psychol Bull 115(2):268–287PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. Ekman P (2003) Emotions inside out. 130 years after Darwin’s “The expression of the emotions in man and animal”. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1000:1–6PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. Ekman P (2009) Darwin’s contributions to our understanding of emotional expressions. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 364(1535):3449–3451.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2009.0189 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Ekman P (2016) What scientists who study emotion agree about. Perspect Psychol Sci 11(1):31–34.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691615596992 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. Ekman P, Friesen WV (1967) Head and body cues in the judgment of emotion: a reformulation. Percept Mot Skills 24(3):711–724.  https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1967.24.3.711 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. Ekman P, Friesen WV (1971) Constants across cultures in the face and emotion. J Pers Soc Psychol 17(2):124–129PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. Ekman P, Sorenson ER, Friesen WV (1969) Pan-cultural elements in facial displays of emotion. Science 164(3875):86–88PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. Ekman P, Friesen WV, O'Sullivan M, Chan A, Diacoyanni-Tarlatzis I, Heider K, Krause R, LeCompte WA, Pitcairn T, Ricci-Bitti PE et al (1987) Universals and cultural differences in the judgments of facial expressions of emotion. J Pers Soc Psychol 53(4):712–717PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. Ekman P, O’Sullivan M, Frank MG (1999) A few can catch a liar. Psychol Sci 10:363–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Engel KC, Manner L, Ayasse M, Steiger S (2015) Acceptance threshold theory can explain occurrence of homosexual behaviour. Biol Lett 11(1):20140603.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2014.0603 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. Fabrega H (2002) Phylogenetic and cultural basis of mental illness. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJGoogle Scholar
  110. Ferriere R, Michod RE (2011) Inclusive fitness in evolution. Nature 471(7339):E6–E8.; author reply E9–10.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09834 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. Figueredo AJ, Sefcek JA, Vasquez G, Brumbach BH, King JE, Jacobs WJ (2005) Evolutionary personality psychology. In: Buss D (ed) The handbook of evolutionary psychology. Wiley, New York, NY, pp 851–877Google Scholar
  112. Figueredo A, Gladden P, Hohman Z (2011) The evolutionary psychology of criminal behaviour. In: Roberts SC (ed) Applied evolutionary psychology. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  113. Fiske AP (1992) The four elementary forms of sociality: framework for a unified theory of social relations. Psychol Rev 99(4):689–723PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. Fitch T (2010) The evolution of language. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Fitch WT, Hauser MD, Chomsky N (2005) The evolution of the language faculty: clarifications and implications. Cognition 97(2):179–210.; discussion 211–125.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2005.02.005 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. Föger B, Taschwer K (2001) Die andere Seite des Spiegels: Konrad Lorenz und der Nationalsozialismus. Czernin-Verlag, WienGoogle Scholar
  117. Foley R, Lewin R (2013) Principles of Human Evolution. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJGoogle Scholar
  118. Fountoulakis KN, Kaprinis GS (2006) Personality disorders: new data versus old concepts. Curr Opin Psychiatry 19(1):90–94.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.yco.0000196158.98540.b6 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. Fountoulakis KN, Siamouli M, Magiria S, Kaprinis G (2008) Late-life depression, religiosity, cerebrovascular disease, cognitive impairment and attitudes towards death in the elderly: interpreting the data. Med Hypotheses 70(3):493–496.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2007.01.093 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. Fountoulakis KN, Gonda X, Koufaki I, Hyphantis T, Cloninger CR (2016) The role of temperament in the etiopathogenesis of bipolar spectrum illness. Harv Rev Psychiatry 24(1):36–52.  https://doi.org/10.1097/HRP.0000000000000077 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. Fowler JH (2005) Human cooperation: second-order free-riding problem solved? Nature 437(7058):E8; discussion E8-9.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04201 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. Freeman D (1983) Margaret Mead and Samoa. Harvard University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  123. Gadgil M, Bossert WH (1970) Life historical consequences of natural selection. Am Nat 104:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Galperin A, Haselton MG, Frederick DA, Poore J, von Hippel W, Buss DM, Gonzaga GC (2013) Sexual regret: evidence for evolved sex differences. Arch Sex Behav 42(7):1145–1161.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-012-0019-3 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. Gangestad SW, Buss DM (1994) Pathogen prevalence and human mate preferences. Ethol Sociobiol 14(2):89–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Gangestad SW, Simpson JA (1990) Toward an evolutionary history of female sociosexual variation. J Pers 58(1):69–96PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  127. Gangestad SW, Haselton MG, Buss DM (2006) Evolutionary foundations of cultural variation: evoked culture and mate preferences. Psychol Inq 17:75–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Garcia-Cardenas N, Olvera-Hernandez S, Gomez-Quintanar BN, Fernandez-Guasti A (2015) Male rats with same sex preference show high experimental anxiety and lack of anxiogenic-like effect of fluoxetine in the plus maze test. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 135:128–135.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2015.05.017 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. Gardner RA, Gardner BT (1969) Teaching sign language to a chimpanzee. Science 165(3894):664–672PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  130. Gaulin S, McBurney DH (2003) Evolutionary psychology. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJGoogle Scholar
  131. Geary DC (1995) Reflections of evolution and culture in children’s cognition. Implications for mathematical development and instruction. Am Psychol 50(1):24–37PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  132. Geary DC (1998) Male, female: the evolution of human sex differences. American Psychological Association, Washington, DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Gergen KJ (1973) Social psychology as history. J Pers Soc Psychol 26:309–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Gluckman P, Beedle A, Hanson M (2009) Principles of evolutionary medicine. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  135. Gosling SD (2001) From mice to men: what can we learn about personality from animal research? Psychol Bull 127(1):45–86PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  136. Grodzinsky Y (2000) The neural substrate of the language faculty: suggestions for the future. Brain Lang 71(1):82–84.  https://doi.org/10.1006/brln.1999.2219 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  137. Grodzinsky Y (2006) The language faculty, Broca’s region, and the mirror system. Cortex 42(4):464–468PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  138. Gunst N, Leca JB, Vasey PL (2015) Influence of sexual competition and social context on homosexual behavior in adolescent female Japanese macaques. Am J Primatol 77(5):502–515.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.22369 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  139. Hagen E, Hammerstein P (2006) Game theory and human evolution: a critique of some recent interpretations of experimental games. Theor Popul Biol 69(3):339–348PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  140. Haig D (2002) Genomic imprinting and kinship. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJGoogle Scholar
  141. Hamilton WD (1964a) The genetical evolution of social behaviour. I. J Theor Biol 7(1):1–16PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  142. Hamilton WD (1964b) The genetical evolution of social behaviour. II. J Theor Biol 7(1):17–52PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  143. Hamilton WD (1970) Selfish and spiteful behaviour in an evolutionary model. Nature 228(5277):1218–1220PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  144. Hamilton W (2001) Narrow roads of gene land, vol 1, 2 and 3. Oxford University Press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  145. Harrod J (2014) The case for chimpanzee religion. J Stud Relig Nat Cult 8(1):8–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Hart CW, Pillig AR (1960) The Tiwi of North Australia. Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  147. Hasegawa T, Hiraiwa M (1980) Social interactions of orphans observed in a free-ranging troop of Japanese monkeys. Folia Primatol 33(1-2):129–158PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  148. Haselton MG, Buss DM (2000) Error management theory: a new perspective on biases in cross-sex mind reading. J Pers Soc Psychol 78(1):81–91PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  149. Haselton MG, Nettle D, Andrews PW (2005) The evolution of cognitive bias. In: Buss D (ed) The handbook of evolutionary psychology. Wiley, New York, NY, pp 724–746Google Scholar
  150. Hauser MD, Chomsky N, Fitch WT (2002) The faculty of language: what is it, who has it, and how did it evolve? Science 298(5598):1569–1579.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.298.5598.1569 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  151. Hawley PH (1999) The ontogenesis of social dominance: a strategy-based evolutionary perspective. Dev Rev 19:97–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Herron J, Freeman S (2013) Evolutionary Analysis, 5th edn. Pearson, NJGoogle Scholar
  153. Higley JD, Linnoila M (1997) A nonhuman primate model of excessive alcohol intake. Personality and neurobiological parallels of type I- and type II-like alcoholism. Recent Dev Alcohol 13:191–219PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  154. Higley JD, Suomi SJ, Linnoila M (1991) CSF monoamine metabolite concentrations vary according to age, rearing, and sex, and are influenced by the stressor of social separation in rhesus monkeys. Psychopharmacology 103(4):551–556PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  155. Higley JD, Mehlman PT, Taub DM, Higley SB, Suomi SJ, Vickers JH, Linnoila M (1992) Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine and adrenal correlates of aggression in free-ranging rhesus monkeys. Arch Gen Psychiatry 49(6):436–441PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  156. Hoppitt WJ, Brown GR, Kendal R, Rendell L, Thornton A, Webster MM, Laland KN (2008) Lessons from animal teaching. Trends Ecol Evol 23(9):486–493.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2008.05.008 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  157. Horner V, Proctor D, Bonnie KE, Whiten A, de Waal FB (2010) Prestige affects cultural learning in chimpanzees. PLoS One 5(5):e10625.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010625 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  158. Huey RB, Pianka ER (1977) Natural selection for juvenile lizards mimicking noxious beetles. Science 195(4274):201–203PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  159. Ishikawa SS, Raine A, Lencz T, Bihrle S, LaCasse L (2001) Increased height and bulk in antisocial personality disorder and its subtypes. Psychiatry Res 105(3):211–219PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  160. Kalikow TJ (1983) Konrad Lorenz’s ethological theory: explanation and ideology, 1938–1943. J Hist Biol 16(1):39–73PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  161. Kaplan HS, Gangestad SW (2005) Life history theory and evolutionary psychology. In: Buss DM (ed) The handbook of evolutionary psychology. Wiley, New York, NY, pp 68–96Google Scholar
  162. Kaptijn R, Thomese F, Liefbroer AC, Silverstein M (2013) Testing evolutionary theories of discriminative grandparental investment. J Biosoc Sci 45(3):289–310.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021932012000612 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  163. Keller MC (2007) The role of mutations in human mating. In: Geher G, Miller G (eds) Mating intelligence: theoretical, experimental, and differential perspectives. Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, pp 173–192Google Scholar
  164. Keller MC, Miller G (2006) Resolving the paradox of common, harmful, heritable mental disorders: which evolutionary genetic models work best? Behav Brain Sci 29(4):385–404.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X06009095. discussion 405–352CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  165. Kenrick DT (1994) Evolutionary social psychology: from sexual selection to social cognition. In: Zanna M (ed) Advances in experimental social psychology, vol 26. Academic, San Diego, CAGoogle Scholar
  166. Kenrick DT, Neuberg SL, Zierk KL, Krones JM (1994) Evolution and social cognition: contrast effects as a function of sex, dominance, and physical attractiveness. Pers Soc Psychol Bull 20:210–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Kenrick DT, Li NP, Butner J (2003) Dynamical evolutionary psychology: individual decision rules and emergent social norms. Psychol Rev 110(1):3–28PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  168. King DA, Schuehle Pfeiffer CE, Randel RD, Welsh TH Jr, Oliphint RA, Baird BE, Curley KO Jr, Vann RC, Hale DS, Savell JW (2006) Influence of animal temperament and stress responsiveness on the carcass quality and beef tenderness of feedlot cattle. Meat Sci 74(3):546–556.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.05.004 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  169. Klein SB, Cosmides L, Tooby J, Chance S (2002) Decisions and the evolution of memory: multiple systems, multiple functions. Psychol Rev 109(2):306–329PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  170. Klin A (2000) Attributing social meaning to ambiguous visual stimuli in higher-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome: the social attribution task. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 41(7):831–846PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  171. Kolk M, Schnettler S (2013) Parental status and gender preferences for children: is differential fertility stopping consistent with the trivers-willard hypothesis? J Biosoc Sci 45(5):683–704.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021932012000557 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  172. Koziel S, Ulijaszek SJ (2001) Waiting for Trivers and Willard: do the rich really favor sons? Am J Phys Anthropol 115(1):71–79.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.1058 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  173. Krebs DL, Denton K (1997) Social illusions and self-deception: the evolution of biases in person perception. In: Simpson J, Kenrick D (eds) Evolutionary social psychology. Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, pp 21–48Google Scholar
  174. Kruglanski AW (1986) Social psychology: attribution. Science 232(4750):665–666.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.232.4750.665 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  175. Kurzban R, Leary MR (2001) Evolutionary origins of stigmatization: the functions of social exclusion. Psychol Bull 127(2):187–208PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  176. Lalumiere M, Harris G, Quinsey V, Rice M (2005) The causes of rape. American Psychological Association, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  177. Leca JB, Gunst N, Vasey PL (2015) Comparative development of heterosexual and homosexual behaviors in free-ranging female Japanese macaques. Arch Sex Behav 44(5):1215–1231.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-014-0437-5 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  178. Lewin R (2009) Human evolution: an illustrated introduction, 5th edn. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NYGoogle Scholar
  179. Li NP, Bailey JM, Kenrick DT, Linsenmeier JAW (2002) The necessities and luxuries of mate preferences: testing the tradeoffs. J Pers Soc Psychol 6(6):947–955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Lieberman D, Tooby J, Cosmides L (2007) The architecture of human kin detection. Nature 445(7129):727–731.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05510 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  181. Lund OCH, Tamnes CK, Moestue C, Buss DM, Vollrath M (2007a) Tactics of hierarchy negotiation. J Res Pers 41:25–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Lund OCH, Τamnes CK, Moestue C, Buss DM, Vollrath M (2007b) Tactics of hierarchy negotiation. J Res Pers 41:25–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Mabry JH (1995) Review of Pinker’s the language instinct. Anal Verbal Behav 12:87–96PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. MacDonald K (1995) Evolution, the five factor model, and levels of personality. J Pers 63:525–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. MacFarlane GR, Vasey PL (2016) Promiscuous primates engage in same-sex genital interactions. Behav Process 126:21–26.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2016.02.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Martin JG, Reale D (2008) Animal temperament and human disturbance: implications for the response of wildlife to tourism. Behav Process 77(1):66–72.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2007.06.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Maryanski A, Turner JH (1992) The social cage: human nature and the evolution of society. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CAGoogle Scholar
  188. Matthews J, Matthews R (2010) Insect behaviour. Springer, New York, NYCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. McAndrew FT (2002) New evolutionary perspectives on altruism: multilevel selection and costly signaling theories. Curr Dir Psychol Sci 11:79–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. McCrae RR, Costa JPT, Martin TA (2005) The NEO-PI-3: a more readable revised NEO personality inventory. J Pers Assess 84(3):261–270.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa8403_05 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  191. Mead M (1928) Coming of age in Samoa William Morrow and Co.,Google Scholar
  192. Mealey L (1995) The sociobiology of sociopathy: an integrated evolutionary model. Behav Brain Sci 18:523–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Mehlman PT, Higley JD, Faucher I, Lilly AA, Taub DM, Vickers J, Suomi SJ, Linnoila M (1994) Low CSF 5-HIAA concentrations and severe aggression and impaired impulse control in nonhuman primates. Am J Psychiatry 151(10):1485–1491.  https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.151.10.1485 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  194. Mehlman PT, Higley JD, Fernald BJ, Sallee FR, Suomi SJ, Linnoila M (1997) CSF 5-HIAA, testosterone, and sociosexual behaviors in free-ranging male rhesus macaques in the mating season. Psychiatry Res 72(2):89–102PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  195. Michod RE (1996) Cooperation and conflict in the evolution of individuality. II. Conflict mediation. Proc Biol Sci 263(1372):813–822.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.1996.0121 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  196. Michod RE (2006) The group covariance effect and fitness trade-offs during evolutionary transitions in individuality. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103(24):9113–9117.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0601080103 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  197. Michod RE, Herron MD (2006) Cooperation and conflict during evolutionary transitions in individuality. J Evol Biol 19(5):1406–1409.; discussion 1426–1436.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1420-9101.2006.01142.x CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  198. Michod RE, Nedelcu AM (2003) On the reorganization of fitness during evolutionary transitions in individuality. Integr Comp Biol 43(1):64–73.  https://doi.org/10.1093/icb/43.1.64 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  199. Miller G (2000a) The mating mind. Penguin, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  200. Miller GF (2000b) The mating mind: how sexual choice shaped the evolution of human nature. Anchor Books, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  201. Miller GF (2007) Sexual selection for moral virtues. Q Rev Biol 82(2):97–125PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  202. Moore G (2004) Principia ethica (original publication 1903). Dover Publications, Mineola, NYGoogle Scholar
  203. Moscovici S, Markova I (2006) The making of modern social psychology. Polity Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  204. Myers D (2010) Social psychology, 10th edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  205. Nedelcu AM, Michod RE (2006) The evolutionary origin of an altruistic gene. Mol Biol Evol 23(8):1460–1464.  https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msl016 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  206. Nettle D (2006) The evolution of personality variation in humans and other animals. Am Psychol 61(6):622–631.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.61.6.622 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  207. Neuberg SL, Smith DM, Asher T (2000) Why people stigmatize: toward a biocultural framework. In: Heatherton T, Kleck R (eds) The social psychology of stigma. The Guilford Press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  208. Nichols S, Grantham T (2000) Adaptive Complexity and Phenomenal Consciousness. Philos Sci 67(4):648–670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Nisbett A (1976) Konrad Lorenz. Littlehampton Book Services Ltd, WorthingGoogle Scholar
  210. Ohman A, Mineka S (2001) Fears, phobias, and preparedness: toward an evolved module of fear and fear learning. Psychol Rev 108(3):483–522PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  211. Orlove MJ, Wood CL (1978) Coefficients of relationship and coefficients of relatedness in kin selection: a covariance form for the RHO formula. J Theor Biol 73(4):679–686PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  212. Ozer DJ, Benet-Martinez V (2006) Personality and the prediction of consequential outcomes. Annu Rev Psychol 57:401–421.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.57.102904.190127 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  213. Paley W (1802) Natural theology or evidences of the existence and attributes of the deity. R. Faulder, LondonGoogle Scholar
  214. Patterson F, Linden E (1981) The education of Koko. Holt, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  215. Penke L, Denissen JJA, Miller GF (2007) The evolutionary genetics of personality. Eur J Personal 21:549–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Perilloux C, Buss DM (2008) Breaking up romantic relationships: costs experienced and coping strategies deployed. Evol Psychol 6:164–181Google Scholar
  217. Peters J, Shackelford TK, Buss DM (2002) Understanding domestic violence against women: using evolutionary psychology to extend the feminist functional analysis. Violence Vict 17(2):255–264PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  218. Pinker S (1994) The language instinct. William Morrow and Company, New York, NYCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Pinker S (1999) How the mind works. WW Norton & Co, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  220. Pinker S (2002) The blank slate: the modern denial of human nature. New York, NY, VikingGoogle Scholar
  221. Pinker S, Bloom P (1990) Natural language and natural selection. Behav Brain Sci 13(4):707–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Pinker S, Jackendoff R (2005) The faculty of language: what’s special about it? Cognition 95(2):201–236.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2004.08.004 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  223. Platek S, Shackelford T (2007) Female infidelity and paternal uncertainty. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  224. Plomin R, DeFries JC, McClearn GE, Rutter M (2008) Behavioral genetics. Freeman, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  225. Popper K (1959) The logic of scientific discovery. Basic Books, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  226. Power HW (1975) Mountain bluebirds: experimental evidence against altruism. Science 189(4197):142–143.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.189.4197.142 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  227. Radcliffe-Brown A (1913) Three tribes of Western Australia. J R Anthropol Inst 43:143–194Google Scholar
  228. Reale D, Reader SM, Sol D, McDougall PT, Dingemanse NJ (2007) Integrating animal temperament within ecology and evolution. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 82(2):291–318.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185X.2007.00010.x CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  229. Reisenzein R (2015) On the universality of the attribution-affect model of helping. Int J Psychol 50(4):308–311.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ijop.12153 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  230. Robson JM (1974) Collected works of John Stuart Mill. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, ONGoogle Scholar
  231. Roff D (1992) The evolution of life histories: theory and analysis. Chapman & Hall, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  232. Rosch EH (1973) Natural categories. Cogn Psychol 4:328–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Rose S (2001) Revisiting evolutionary psychology and psychiatry. Br J Psychiatry 179:558PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  234. Rossano M (2006) The religious mind and the evolution of religion. Rev Gen Psychol 10(4):346–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Rousseau JJ (1979) Emile, or on education (trans. Allan Bloom). Basic Books, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  236. Salmon C, Shackelford T (2008) Family relationships: an evolutionary perspective. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  237. Santiago JH, Tarantino SJ (2002) Individualism and collectivism: cultural orientation in locus of control and moral attribution under conditions of social change. Psychol Rep 91(3 Pt 2):1155–1168.  https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.2002.91.3f.1155 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  238. Santrock WJ (2005) A topical approach to life-span development, 3rd edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  239. Schaller M, Simpson JA, Kenrick DT (2006) Evolution and social psychology. Psychology Press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  240. Schmitt DP, Buss DM (2001) Human mate poaching: tactics and temptations for infiltrating existing relationships. J Pers Soc Psychol 80(6):894–917PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  241. Schreiber D (2012) On social attribution: implications of recent cognitive neuroscience research for race, law, and politics. Sci Eng Ethics 18(3):557–566.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11948-012-9381-8 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  242. Schwartz DA, Howe CQ, Purves D (2003) The statistical structure of human speech sounds predicts musical universals. J Neurosci 23(18):7160–7168PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  243. Segal NL, MacDonald KB (1998) Behavioral genetics and evolutionary psychology: unified perspective on personality research. Hum Biol 70(2):159–184PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  244. Seidel EM, Eickhoff SB, Kellermann T, Schneider F, Gur RC, Habel U, Derntl B (2010) Who is to blame? Neural correlates of causal attribution in social situations. Soc Neurosci 5(4):335–350.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17470911003615997 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  245. Shankman P (2009) The trashing of margaret mead: the anatomy of an anthropological myth. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WIGoogle Scholar
  246. Sheldon KM, Sheldon MS, Nichols CP (2007) Traits and trade-offs are insufficient for evolutionary personality psychology. Am Psychol 62(9):1073–1074.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.62.9.1073 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  247. Sibley RM (1983) Optimal group size is unstable. Anim Behav 31:947–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Sims CA (2001) Revisiting evolutionary psychology and psychiatry. Br J Psychiatry 179:558–559PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  249. Smith EA (2011) Endless forms: human behavioural diversity and evolved universals. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 366(1563):325–332.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2010.0233 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Stearns S (1992) The evolution of life histories. Oxford, Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  251. Sugiyama MS (2003) Cultural variation is part of human nature: literary universals, context-sensitivity, and “Shakespeare in the bush”. Hum Nat 14(4):383–396.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12110-003-1012-2 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  252. Sugiyama L (2005) Physical attractiveness in adaptationist perspective. In: Buss D (ed) The handbook of evolutionary psychology. Wiley, New York, NY, pp 292–342Google Scholar
  253. Sulloway F (1996) Born to rebel. Pantheon, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  254. Thornhill R, Gangestad SW (2008) The evolutionary biology of human female sexuality. Oxford University Press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  255. Thornhill R, Palmer C (2000) A natural history of rape: biological bases of sexual coercion. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  256. Tooby J, Cosmides L (1990) On the universality of human nature and the uniqueness of the individual: the role of genetics and adaptation. J Pers 58(1):17–67PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  257. Tooley G, Karakis M, Stokes M, Ozannesmith J (2006) Generalising the Cinderella Effect to unintentional childhood fatalities. Evol Hum Behav Brain Sci 27:224–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Traxler MJ, Boudewyn M, Loudermilk J (2012) What’s special about human language? The contents of the “narrow language faculty” revisited. Lang Ling Compass 6(10):611–621.  https://doi.org/10.1002/lnc3.355 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Triana-Del Rio R, Tecamachaltzi-Silvaran MB, Diaz-Estrada VX, Herrera-Covarrubias D, Corona-Morales AA, Pfaus JG, Coria-Avila GA (2015) Conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats is facilitated by oxytocin and dopamine: effect on sexually dimorphic brain nuclei. Behav Brain Res 283:69–77.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2015.01.019 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  260. Trivers RL (1972) Parental investment and sexual selection. In: Campbell B (ed) Sexual selection and the descent of man, 1871–1971. Aldine-Atherton, Chicago, IL, pp 136–179Google Scholar
  261. Trivers RL, Willard DE (1973) Natural selection of parental ability to vary the sex ratio of offspring. Science 179(4068):90–92PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  262. Ungerfeld R, Giriboni J, Freitas-de-Melo A, Lacuesta L (2014) Homosexual behavior in male goats is more frequent during breeding season and in bucks isolated from females. Horm Behav 65(5):516–520.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2014.04.013 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  263. Van Vugt M, Ahuja A (2011) Naturally selected: the evolutionary science of leadership. Harper Business, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  264. Van Vugt M, Ronay R (2014) The evolutionary psychology of leadership. Organ Psychol Rev 4:74–95Google Scholar
  265. Varki A, Altheide TK (2005) Comparing the human and chimpanzee genomes: searching for needles in a haystack. Genome Res 15(12):1746–1758.  https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.3737405 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  266. Vasey PL, Leca JB, Gunst N, VanderLaan DP (2014) Female homosexual behavior and inter-sexual mate competition in Japanese macaques: possible implications for sexual selection theory. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 46(Pt 4):573–578.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.09.002 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  267. Veller C, Haig D, Nowak MA (2016) The Trivers-Willard hypothesis: sex ratio or investment? Proc Biol Sci 283:1830.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2016.0126 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Venero Fernandez SJ, Medina RS, Britton J, Fogarty AW (2011) The association between living through a prolonged economic depression and the male:female birth ratio—a longitudinal study from Cuba, 1960–2008. Am J Epidemiol 174(12):1327–1331.  https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwr357 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  269. Ward EF (1983) Teaching sign language to a chimpanzee: some historical references. J Exp Anal Behav 40(3):341–342PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Washburn SL (1973) The promise of primatology. Am J Phys Anthropol 38(2):177–182.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.1330380206 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  271. Washburn SL (1978) The evolution of man. Sci Am 239(3):194–201. 204 passimPubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  272. Washburn SL (1982) Human evolution. Perspect Biol Med 25(4):583–602PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  273. Washburn SL, McCown ER (1972) Evolution of human behavior. Soc Biol 19(2):163–170PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  274. Weiner S, Monge J, Mann A (2008) Bipedalism and parturition: an evolutionary imperative for cesarean delivery? Clin Perinatol 35(3):469–478.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clp.2008.06.003 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  275. Wells JC, DeSilva JM, Stock JT (2012) The obstetric dilemma: an ancient game of Russian roulette, or a variable dilemma sensitive to ecology? Am J Phys Anthropol 149(Suppl 55):40–71.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.22160 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  276. Whitney G (1970) Timidity and fearfulness of laboratory mice: an illustration of problems in animal temperament. Behav Genet 1(1):77–85PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  277. Williams G (1966) Adaptation and natural selection. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJGoogle Scholar
  278. Wilson E (1975) Sociobiology: the new synthesis. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  279. Wilson E (1978) On human nature. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  280. Wilson DS (1994) Adaptive genetic variation and human evolutionary psychology. Ethol Sociobiol 15:219–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Wilson E (2000) Sociobiology: the new synthesis, twenty-fifth anniversary edition new edition edition. Belknap Press, Cambridge, MACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Wilson DS, Near D, Miller RR (1996) Machiavellianism: a synthesis of the evolutionary and psychological literatures. Psychol Bull 119(2):285–299PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  283. Wolf M, van Doorn GS, Leimar O, Weissing FJ (2007) Life-history trade-offs favour the evolution of animal personalities. Nature 447(7144):581–584.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05835 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  284. Workman L, Reader W (2008) Evolutionary psychology: an introduction. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  285. Zadzinska E, Rosset I, Mikulec A, Domanski C, Pawlowski B (2011) Impact of economic conditions on the secondary sex ratio in a post-communist economy. Homo : internationale Zeitschrift fur die vergleichende. Forsch Mensch 62(3):218–227.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchb.2011.03.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Zahavi A (1975) Mate selection-a selection for a handicap. J Theor Biol 53(1):205–214PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  287. Zahavi A (2006) Sexual selection, signal selection and the handicap principle. In: Jamieson BGM (ed) Reproductive biology and phylogeny of birds. Science Publishers, Enfield, NH, pp 143–159Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kostas N. Fountoulakis
    • 1
  1. 1.3rd Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health SciencesAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece

Personalised recommendations