Advertisement

The Charlie Hebdo Affair in the Journalistic Field of the United Kingdom

  • Lyombe EkoEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter is concerned with journalist conceptualizations of the Charlie Hebdo terrorist attack within the context of the geography of freedom of expression of the establishmentarian regime of the United Kingdom. It explores how the main public and private media of the multicultural British journalistic field dealt with the tensions spawned by Charlie Hebdo’s exercise of its human right to satirize religion in the monocultural, secular republican context of France. The question addressed is how the major media outlets in the multicultural British journalistic field used their editorial independence to manage the tension between the human right of freedom of expression—specifically, the journalistic right to illustrate news of the Charlie Hebdo terrorist attack with relevant Charlie Hebdo Mohammed cartoon images—and Islamic injunctions against visual representations of Prophet Mohammed.

Keywords

Multiculturalism British journalistic field Tabloids Blasphemy Editorial independence BBC charter 

References

  1. About Punch Magazine Cartoon Archive. (2003). Punch. Retrieved from https://www.punch.co.uk/about/index
  2. Agreement Between Her Majesty’s Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport and the British Broadcasting Corporation. (2016). BBC. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/aboutthebbc/governance/charter
  3. Alfred Hansworth, Lord Northcliffe. (2013). In Oxford Reference. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803095921726
  4. Altick, R. (1997). Punch: The Lively Youth of a British Institution. Columbus, OH: Ohio University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Berkowitz, D., & Eko, L. (2007, October). Blasphemy as Sacred Rite/Right. Journalism Studies, 8, 779–797.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14616700701504757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bourdieu, P. (1971). Genèse et structure du champ religieux (Origin and Structure of the Religious Field). Revue française de sociologie, 12(3), 295–334. Retrieved from http://www.persee.fr/doc/rfsoc_0035-2969_1971_num_12_3_1994
  7. Bourdieu, P. (1994). L’emprise du journalisme (Pressures on Journalism). Actes de la Recherches en Sciences Sociales, 101(1), 3–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Burke, E. (1790). Reflections on the Revolution in France. London: Dodsley.Google Scholar
  9. Carlyle, T. (1837). The French Revolution: A History. London: Chapman & Hall. Retrieved from https://www.gutenberg.org/files/1301/1301-h/1301-h.htm.Google Scholar
  10. Choudhury v. United Kingdom (1991). Decision of Inadmissibility of the European Commission of Human Rights of 5 March 1991, Application No. 17439/90.Google Scholar
  11. Christensen & Christensen. (2013). The Arab Spring as Meta-Event and Communicative Spaces. Television and New Media, 14(4), 351–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Eide, E., Risto, K., & Philips, A. (Eds.). (2008). Transnational Media Events: The Mohammed Cartoons and the Imagined Clash of Civilizations. Göteborg, Sweden: Nordicom.Google Scholar
  13. Eko, L. (2012). New Media, Old Regimes: Case Studies in Comparative Communication Law and Policy. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  14. Elliott, C. (2015, January 19). The Readers’ Editor on…The Guardian’s Values and Charlie Hebdo’s Cartoons of Muhammad. The Guardian Online. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/jan/19/guardian-values-charlie-hebdo-cartoons-muhammad
  15. Fridriksson, L. (2004). Western Europe. In A. de Beer & J. Merrill (Eds.), Global Journalism: Topical Issues and Media Systems (pp. 181–211). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  16. Greenslade, R. (2015, January 8). What the UK National Newspapers Said about the Charlie Hebdo Attack. The Guardian Online. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/media/greenslade/2015/jan/08/what-the-uk-national-newspapers-said-about-the-charlie-hebdo-attack
  17. Guthrie, A. (2015). Decoding Daesh: Why is the New Name for ISIS so Hard to Understand? Free Word. Retrieved from https://www.freewordcentre.com/explore/daesh-isis-media-alice-guthrie
  18. Hallin, D., & Mancini, P. (2004). Comparing Media Systems: Three Models of Media and Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Huntington, S. (1996). The Clash of Civilizations and the Making of the World Order. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  20. Irshaid, F. (2015, December 2). Isis, Isil, IS or Daesh? One Group, Many Names. BBC News. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-27994277
  21. Janes, D. (2014, Spring). The Role of Visual Appearance in Punch’s Early Victorian Satires on Religion. Victorian Periodicals Review, 47(1), 66–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Karppinen, K., & Moe, H. (2016). What We Talk About When Talk About “Media Independence”. Javnost—The Public, 23(2), 105–119.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13183222.2016.1162986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Legrand, P. (2003). The Same and the Different. In P. Legrand & R. Munday (Eds.), Comparative Legal Studies: Traditions and Transitions (pp. 240–311). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Leveson, L. J. (2012). The Leveson Inquiry: Culture, Practices and Ethics of the Press. London: The Stationery Office.Google Scholar
  25. Mardell, M. (2015). Cameron is Not Asking the Big Question on Islamic State. BBC News.Google Scholar
  26. Martinson, J. (2015, June 29). BBC to Review Use of ‘Islamic State’ after MPs Protest Against Term. The Guardian Online. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/media/2015/jun/29/bbc-to-review-use-of-islamic-state-after-mps-protest-against-term
  27. Morin, E. (1990). Le trou noir de la laicité (The Black Hole of Secularism). Le Débat, 58, 38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. News Media Association. (2017). Key Issues for the News Media Industry. Retrieved from http://www.newsmediauk.org/Current-Topics
  29. Penketh, A., & Weaver, M. (2015, January 13). Charlie Hebdo: First Cover since Terror Attack Depicts Prophet Muhammad. The Guardian Online. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/media/2015/jan/13/charlie-hebdo-cover-magazine-prophet-muhammad
  30. Plunkett, J. (2015). Publishing Muhammad Cartoons would have been Too Risky, says Amol Rajan. The Guardian Online. Retrieved form https://www.theguardian.com/media/2015/jan/08/charlie-hebdo-muhammad-cartoons-independent-amol-rajan
  31. R. v. Chief Metropolitan Stipendiary Magistrate, ex parte Choudhury [1991] 1 QB 429, [1990] 3 WLR 986, [1991] 1 All ER 306, 91 Cr App R 393, [1990] Crim LR 711, DC.Google Scholar
  32. R v. Gathercole (1838) 2 Lew CC 237 at 254, (1838) 168 ER 1140 at 1145.Google Scholar
  33. Roche, M. (2006, February 12). Au Royaume-Uni, seul un journal d’étudiants a publié les caricatures [In the United Kingdom, Only One Student Newspaper Published the Caricatures]. Le Monde, p. 18.Google Scholar
  34. Ruddick, A. (2015, June 15). The English Church shall be Free! Church and Society. Retrieved from http://churchsociety.org/crossway/page/the_english_church_shall_be_free
  35. Rusbridger, A. (2015, January 8). The Guardian View on Charlie Hebdo: Show Solidarity, But in Your Own Voice. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/jan/08/guardian-view-charlie-hebdo-show-solidarity-own-voice
  36. Siebert, F., Peterson, T., & Schramm, W. (1956). Four Theories of the Press. Urbana and Champaign: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  37. Smith, D. (2015, July 1). BBC Rejects MPs’ Calls to Refer to Islamic State as Daesh. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/media/2015/jul/02/bbc-rejects-mps-calls-to-refer-to-islamic-state-as-daesh
  38. Temperman, J., & Koltay, A. (2017). Blasphemy and Freedom of Expression: Comparative, Theoretical and Historical Reflections after the Charlie Hebdo Massacre. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Todd, E. (2015). Who is Charlie? Xenophobia and the New Middle Class. Cambridge, UK: Polity.Google Scholar
  40. Vidon, M. (2015). First ‘Charlie Hebdo’ Issue Since Attack Sells Out. USA Today.Google Scholar
  41. Waterson, J. (2015, January 14). Sky News Apologises After Guest Shows Charlie Hebdo Cover On Air. Buzzfeed News. Retrieved from https://www.buzzfeed.com/jimwaterson/sky-news-charlie-hebdo
  42. Wemple, E. (2015, January 14). Sky News Showcases Charlie Hebdo Self-censorship in Real Time. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/erik-wemple/wp/2015/01/14/sky-news-showcases-charlie-hebdo-self-censorship-in-real-time/
  43. White, A. (2015, January 13). Most British Media Outlets Won’t Discuss Why They Didn’t Publish The New Cover of Charlie Hebdo. Buzzfeed. Retrieved from http://www.buzzfeed.com/alanwhite/most-british-media-outlets-wont-discuss-why-they-didnt-publi#.wi3EPOvQg

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Journalism and Creative MediaTexas Tech UniversityLubbockUSA

Personalised recommendations