Optimal Placement and Sizing of Parking Lots for the Plug-In Electric Vehicles Considering the Technical, Social, and Geographical Aspects

  • Mehdi Rahmani-Andebili


This chapter studies the planning problem of parking lot sizing and placement in the electrical distribution network considering the security constraints of the system and modelling the technical, social, and geographical aspects of the problem. In this study, the planning problem is investigated from the local distribution company’s (DISCO) point of view to minimize the total cost of problem during the planning period considering the economic factors such as inflation and interest rates. The cost terms of planning problem include the investment cost to install the parking lots in the system and equip them with the charging/discharging stations, the present worth value of maintenance cost of parking lots and their equipment during the planning period, the present worth value of incentives paid to the drivers to motivate them to provide vehicle-to-grid (V2G) service at suggested parking lots during the planning interval, the present worth value of energy loss cost of branches during the planning time horizon, and the present worth value of energy not supplied (ENS) cost due to the power outage during the planning period. Herein, the feeder’s failure rate (FFR) and the electricity consumer’s load (residential, commercial, and industrial), as the voltage-dependent load (VDL), are modelled. Moreover, the real driving routes of vehicles in San Francisco are considered. In this study, several scenarios are defined to study the effect of different social classes of drivers, PEV penetration levels, PEV types (Citroën C-Zero and Tesla Model S), FFR model, and VDL model on the problem outputs. It is demonstrated that the abovementioned parameters can affect the security level of system (voltage profile of buses and apparent power of branches), the optimal value of problem outputs (hourly location and size of parking lots and hourly value of incentive), the problem indices (energy loss, ENS, and reliability indices of system), and the value of objective function of planning problem (minimum value of total cost of planning problem). Furthermore, it is noticed that ignoring the real models of FFR and VDL can negatively influence the optimal value of problem outputs and result in the misleading and unpractical consequences.


Drivers’ behavioral model Feeder’s failure rate (FFR) model Geographical aspect Parking lot allocation and sizing Plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) Voltage-dependent load (VDL) model 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mehdi Rahmani-Andebili
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physics and AstronomyUniversity of Alabama in HuntsvilleHuntsvilleUSA

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