Advertisement

Spinning Reserve Capacity Provision by the Optimal Fleet Management of Plug-In Electric Vehicles Considering the Technical and Social Aspects

  • Mehdi Rahmani-Andebili
Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter, the cooperation of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and generation units in providing the spinning reserve capacity of power system is studied considering the technical and social aspects of problem. The objective function of problem is to minimize the total cost of problem by optimal fleet management (FM) of PEVs considering low, moderate, and high penetration levels for them. The drivers are stratified in three different social classes based on their income level including low-income, moderate-income, and high-income. The behavior of each social class of drivers is modeled based on the drivers’ reaction with respect to the value of incentive to provide the spinning reserve capacity and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power in normal condition and emergency, respectively. A sensitivity analysis is performed for the problem operation cost with respect to the value of incentive for each social class of drivers considering different PEV penetration levels. Additionally, the effects of unrealistic modelling of drivers’ social class on the problem results are studied.

Keywords

Drivers’ behavioral model Drivers’ social class Fleet management (FM) Grid-to-vehicle (G2V) Plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) Spinning reserve capacity Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) 

References

  1. 1.
    [Online]. Available: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/wene.56. Accessed on Sept 2018
  2. 2.
    W. Kempton et al., A Test of Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) for Energy Storage and Frequency Regulation in the PJM System (Newark, Univ. Delaware, 2008)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    “Monthly plug-in sales scorecard,” Accessed on: Aug 2018. [Online]. Available: http://insideevs.com/monthly-plug-in-sales-scorecard. Accessed on Sept 2018
  4. 4.
    Clean Energy Ministerial, “Electric vehicles initiative,” Accessed on: Aug 2018. [Online]. Available: http://cleanenergyministerial.org/Our-Work/Initiatives/Electric-Vehicles. Accessed on Sept 2018
  5. 5.
  6. 6.
    [Online]. Available: https://www.bloomberg.com/features/2016-ev-oil-crisis/. Accessed on Jan 2019
  7. 7.
  8. 8.
    M. Rahmani-Andebili, M.F. Firuzabad, M. Moeini-Aghtaie, Chapter 11: Optimal incentive plans for plug-in electric vehicles, in Electric Distribution Network Planning, (Springer, 2018), pp. 299–320Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Rahmani-Andebili, G.K. Venayagamoorthy, SmartPark placement and operation for improving system reliability and market participation. Electr. Power Syst. Res. (Elsevier) 123(6), 21–30 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. Rahmani-Andebili, Spinning reserve supply with presence of electric vehicles aggregator considering compromise between cost and reliability. IET Gener. Transm. Distrib. 7(12), 1442–1452 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Rahmani-Andebili, G.K. Venayagamoorthy, Investigating effects of changes in power market regulations on demand-side resources aggregators, in IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting, Denver, pp. 1–5, 20–30 July 2015Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    P. Aliasghari, B. Mohammadi-Ivatloo, M. Alipour, M. Abapour, K. Zare, Optimal scheduling of plug-in electric vehicles and renewable microgrid in energy and reserve markets considering demand response program. J. Clean. Prod. 186, 293–303 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    I. Pavic, T. Capuder, I. Kuzle, Value of flexible electric vehicles in providing spinning reserve services. Appl. Energy 157, 60–74 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Alipour, B. Mohammadi-Ivatloo, M. Moradi-Dalvand, K. Zare, Stochastic scheduling of aggregators of plug-in electric vehicles for participation in energy and ancillary service markets. Energy 118, 1168–1179 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. Rahmani-Andebili, M.F. Firuzabad, An adaptive approach for PEVs charging management and reconfiguration of electrical distribution system penetrated by renewables. IEEE Trans. Ind. Inf. 14(5) (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    H. Saadat, Power System Analysis (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2009)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    D. Newbery, The economics of electric vehicles, in EPRG and Imperial College London, E&E Seminar, Cambridge, U.K., Jan 2013. [Online]. Available: http://www.eprg.group.cam.ac.uk/wpcontent/uploads/2013/01/EEJan13_EconomicsEVs.pdf
  18. 18.
    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). [Online]. Available: http://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.cfm?id=9310. Accessed on Aug 2018
  19. 19.
    [Online]. Available: http://www.ferc.gov/market-oversight/mkt-electric/overview.asp. Accessed on Aug 2018

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mehdi Rahmani-Andebili
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physics and AstronomyUniversity of Alabama in HuntsvilleHuntsvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations