Musculoskeletal Pain Joint Pain: Upper Extremities

  • Melinda Aquino
  • Yuriy O. Ivanov


Upper extremity pain may arise from a variety of local structures, as well as be referred from the cervical spine. A thorough understanding of the anatomy and biomechanics is essential in the diagnosis and treatment. Targeted physical and occupational therapy is critical to resumption of normal function.


Upper extremity pain Arm pain Shoulder Elbow Brachial plexus 


  1. 1.
    Weinstein SI, Yelin EH, Watkins-Castillo SI. The big picture. 2014. Retrieved 10 Aug 2017, from
  2. 2.
    United States Department of Labor. n.d. Retrieved 10 Aug 2017, from
  3. 3.
    Prevalence Statistics. n.d. Retrieved 10 Aug 2017, from
  4. 4.
    Type of injury or illness and body parts affected by nonfatal injuries and illnesses in 2014: The Economics Daily. (2015, December 2). Retrieved 10 Aug 2017, from
  5. 5.
    Holmes RE, Barfield WR, Woolf SK. Clinical evaluation of nonarthritic shoulder pain: diagnosis and treatment. Phys Sportsmed. 2015;43(3):262–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kendall FP. Muscles: testing and function with posture and pain. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010. Print.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cuccurullo S, Lee J. Physical medicine and rehabilitation board review. New York: Demos Medical; 2015. Print.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shultz T, De Dobbeleer M. Acromioclavicular Joint. n.d. Retrieved 10 Aug 2017, from
  9. 9.
    Gaillard F, Bickle I. Elbow | Radiology reference article. n.d. Retrieved 10 Aug 2017, from
  10. 10.
    Goel A, Weerakkody Y. Carrying angle | radiology reference article. n.d. Retrieved 10 Aug 2017, from
  11. 11.
    Jones O. 2017, March 27. The Radioulnar Joints. Retrieved 10 Aug 2017, from
  12. 12.
    Jones O. 2017, April 15. The Wrist Joint. Retrieved 10 Aug 2017, from
  13. 13.
    Fusco M, Skaper SD, Coaccioli S, Varrassi G, Paladini A. Degenerative joint diseases and neuroinflammation. Pain Pract. 2017;17(4):522–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jones O. 2017, April 15. The Elbow Joint. Retrieved 10 Aug 2017, from
  15. 15.
    Gatchel RJ, Schultz IZ, editors. Handbook of musculoskeletal pain and disability disorders in the workplace. New York: Springer-Verlag; 2014.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Aletaha D, Neogi T, Silman AJ, et al. 2010 rheumatoid arthritis classification criteria: an American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism collaborative initiative. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62(9):2569–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Barr KP. Review of upper and lower extremity musculoskeletal pain problems. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2007;18(4):747–60, vi-vii.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Braddom RL, Chan L, Harrast MA. Physical medicine and rehabilitation. Philadelphia: Saunders/Elsevier; 2011. Print.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Parsonage Turner Syndrome. n.d. Retrieved 10 Aug 2017, from

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Melinda Aquino
    • 1
  • Yuriy O. Ivanov
    • 2
  1. 1.Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA
  2. 2.Department of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationMontefiore Medical CenterBronxUSA

Personalised recommendations