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Human Trafficking and Its Financial Management in Italy

  • Georgios A. AntonopoulosEmail author
  • Andrea Di Nicola
  • Atanas Rusev
  • Fiamma Terenghi
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Criminology book series (BRIEFSCRIMINOL)

Abstract

Trafficking in human beings for sexual and labour exploitation in Italy is a dynamic and highly profitable illicit market especially, although not exclusively, for foreign organised crime groups such as the Nigerians, Chinese and East Europeans. This results in part from the high numbers of migrants arriving to Italy from Africa, due to the key role of the Central Mediterranean route within the migration flows. The main focus of the chapter is an analysis of the financial mechanisms of trafficking in human beings for sexual and labour exploitation, which is a topic that remains under-investigated. The financing aspects taken into consideration are financiers and the source of capitals to start and sustain the trafficking operations, the methods of payment, the costs of doing business, profits made and investment schemes of revenues. The findings presented here underline the need of some start-up capital to run the business, the use of cash for most transactions, the low costs and high revenues of trafficking operations, as well as informal banking systems and money transfers for money laundering.

Keywords

Italy Human trafficking Labour exploitation Organised crime Illicit finances Hawala 

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Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Georgios A. Antonopoulos
    • 1
    Email author
  • Andrea Di Nicola
    • 2
  • Atanas Rusev
    • 3
  • Fiamma Terenghi
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Social Sciences and LawTeesside UniversityMiddlesbroughUK
  2. 2.Faculty of LawUniversity of TrentoTrentoItaly
  3. 3.Security ProgramCentre for the Study of DemocracySofiaBulgaria
  4. 4.Faculty of LawUniversity of TrentoTrentoItaly

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