Peter Nijkamp Recommends “The False Duality of Work and Leisure” by Joy E. Beatty and William R. Torbert

  • Peter Nijkamp


Leisure contributes positively to the economy. Economists have frequently addressed the effect of leisure time on individual or collective economic outcomes (e.g. wages, productivity, efficiency, well-being). Productive time and free time are seen as enemies: more leisure time tends to reduce individual or aggregate economic performance. But leisure time and income are not necessarily antipoles: to achieve a higher position on the income ladder does not always require spending more hours on work and less hours on leisure.


  1. Beatty, J. E., & Torbert, W. R. (2003). The false duality of work and leisure. Journal of Management Inquiry, 12(3), 239–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Nijkamp
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Tinbergen InstituteAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Adam Mickiewicz UniversityPoznanPoland
  3. 3.JADS,‘s-HertogenboschHertogenboschThe Netherlands

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