Real Ultras and Ultra Realism: Deviant Leisure Cultures, High Theory and Raw Realism
This chapter positions the deviant leisure perspective as a potent dialectical mixture of high theory and raw realism. The chapter pursues this combination, employing complex theory from the likes of Slavoj Žižek, Alain Badiou, Paul Virilio and ultra realist criminological theory to contextualise and make sense of international empirical research into the rise of the ‘ultra’ phenomenon in contemporary football fandom. As such, this chapter argues that the emergent deviant leisure perspective is a powerful new zemiological approach with the power to critique the embedded harms within contemporary leisure and consumer capitalism with theoretical and empirically informed accounts that are highly attuned to the historically specific context of a globalised, technologically accelerated culture of late-modern consumer capitalism.
KeywordsDeviant leisure Ultra realism Football fandom Ultras Zemiology Technology Globalisation
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