Advertisement

Luxury, Tourism and Harm: A Deviant Leisure Perspective

Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Crime, Media and Culture book series (PSCMC)

Abstract

The unchecked drift towards luxury in the tourist industry compounds, exacerbates and perpetuates environmental and cultural harms on a local and global scale. I will demonstrate this claim through a range of examples, raising a number of important questions around the role of luxury within contemporary consumer culture. There are few startling revelations here. We are aware of many of the environmental costs of tourism. Many people would claim to be uncomfortable with the inequalities we witness when ‘on holiday’. In this sense, this chapter attempts to wrestle with motivational aspects at work. How can we explain the resilience and growth of the luxury tourist industry at a time when climate change is acknowledged as scientific truth, and extreme weather events appear to be increasing in both frequency and devastation, while the wealth divide between the global north and the south is increasingly pronounced. The deviant leisure perspective on leisure, consumerism and harm offers some hope here. Combined with a theorisation of luxury and individualistic subjectivities in consumer capitalism, this literature has great potential to explain these motivations within a deeper socio-cultural and political-economic causal context.

Keywords

Deviant leisure Luxury Tourism Inequality Harm 

References

  1. Alcock, I., White, M. P., Taylor, T., Coldwell, D. F., Gribble, M. O., Evans, K. L., et al. (2017). ‘Green’ on the Ground but Not in the Air: Pro-environmental Attitudes Are Related to Household Behaviours but Not Discretionary Air Travel. Global Environmental Change, 42, 136–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Archer, B., Cooper, C., & Ruhanen, L. (2005). The Positive and Negative Impacts of Tourism. Global Tourism, 3, 79–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. ATAG. (2015). The Aviation Sector’s Climate Action Framework. Geneva.Google Scholar
  4. Atkinson, R. G. (2015). Limited Exposure: Social Concealment, Mobility and Engagement with Public Space by the Super-rich in London. Environment and Planning, 48, 1302–1317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cartmill, M. (1996). A View to a Death in the Morning: Hunting and Nature Through History. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Deneen, P. (2018). Why Liberalism Failed. New Haven: Yale University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dubois, G., & Ceron, J. P. (2006). Tourism and Climate Change: Proposals for a Research Agenda. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 14(4), 399–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dykins, R. (2016). Shaping the Future of Luxury Travel. London: Tourism Economics.Google Scholar
  9. Fernandez, M. (2017). Blood and Beauty on a Texas Exotic-Game Ranch. New York Times. Retrieved March, 2018, from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/10/19/us/exotic-hunting-texas-ranch.html.
  10. Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and Self-Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age. Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Gössling, S., & Peeters, P. (2007). ‘It Does Not Harm the Environment!’ An Analysis of Industry Discourses on Tourism, Air Travel and the Environment. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 15(4), 402–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gunn, A. S. (2001). Environmental Ethics and Trophy Hunting. Ethics and the Environment, 6(1), 68–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hall, S. (2012). Theorizing Crime and Deviance: A New Perspective. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  14. Hall, S., & Winlow, S. (2015). Revitalizing Criminological Theory: Towards a New Ultra-Realism. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hayward, K. (2004). City Limits: Crime, Consumer Culture and the Urban Experience. London: Glasshouse.Google Scholar
  16. Hayward, K. J. (2012). Using Cultural Geography to Think Differently About Space and Crime. New Directions in Criminological Theory (pp. 123–144).Google Scholar
  17. Hickman, L. (2007). The Final Call. In Search of the True Cost of Our Holidays. London: Guardian Publishing.Google Scholar
  18. Higham, J. E., Cohen, S. A., & Cavaliere, C. T. (2014). Climate Change, Discretionary Air Travel, and the “Flyers’ Dilemma”. Journal of Travel Research, 53(4), 462–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. de Jong, A., & Schuilenburg, M. (2006). Mediapolis: Popular Culture and the City. 010 Publishers.Google Scholar
  20. de Laveleye, É. L. V., Armitage, J., & Roberts, J. (2016). Luxury Is Unjustifiable. Public Culture, 12(1), 42–48.Google Scholar
  21. Lagriffoul, A., Boudenne, J. L., Absi, R., Ballet, J. J., Berjeaud, J. M., Chevalier, S., et al. (2010). Bacterial-Based Additives for the Production of Artificial Snow: What Are the Risks to Human Health? Science of the Total Environment, 408(7), 1659–1666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lindsey, P., Frank, L. G., Alexander, R., Mathieson, A., & Romañach, S. (2006). Trophy Hunting and Conservation in Africa: Problems and One Potential Solution. Conservation Biology, 21(3), 800–883.Google Scholar
  23. McNeil, P., & Riello, G. (2016). Luxury: A Rich History. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Monbiot, G. (2015). Attacks on the Last Elephants and Rhinos Threaten Entire Ecosystems. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/environment/georgemonbiot/2015/may/22/attacks-on-the-last-elephants-and-rhinos-threaten-entire-ecosystems.
  25. Murray, C. K. (2017). The Lion’s Share? On the Economic Benefits of Trophy Hunting. A Report for the Humane Society International. Prepared by Economists at Large, Melbourne, Australia. Retrieved from http://www.hsi.org/assets/pdfs/economists-at-large-trophy-hunting.pdf.
  26. OCDE. 2007.Google Scholar
  27. Penner, J. E. (1999). Aviation and the Global Atmosphere: A Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Raymen, T. (2017). Living in the End Times Through Popular Culture: An Ultra-Realist Analysis of the Walking Dead as Popular Criminology. Crime, Media, Culture.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1741659017721277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Smith, O., & Raymen, T. (2018). Deviant Leisure: A Criminological Perspective. Theoretical Criminology, 22(1), 63–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ripple, W., Newsome, T., Wolf, C., Dirzo, R., Everatt, K., Galetti, M., Hayward, M., Kerley, G., Levi, T., Lindsey, P., Macdonald, D., Malhi, Y., Painter, L., Sandom, C., Terborgh, J., & Van Valkenburgh, B. (2015). Collapse of the World’s Largest Herbivores. Science Advances, 1(4), e1400103.  https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1400103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rixen, C., Haeberli, W., & Stoeckli, V. (2004). Ground Temperatures Under Ski Pistes with Artificial and Natural Snow. Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine Research, 36, 403–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rolando, A., Caprio, E., Rinaldi, E., & Ellena, I. (2007). The Impact of High-Altitude Ski-Runs on Alpine Grassland Bird Communities. Journal of Applied Ecology, 44(1), 210–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sennett, R. (1992). The Uses of Disorder: Personal Identity and City Life. WW Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  34. Singh, T. V. (Ed.). (2012). Critical Debates in Tourism. Bristol: Channel View.Google Scholar
  35. Stebbins, R. A. (2007). Serious Leisure: A Perspective for Our Time. Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  36. Steinhart, E. I. (1989). Hunters, Poachers and Gamekeepers: Towards a Social History of Hunting in Colonial Kenya. The Journal of African History, 30(2), 247–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sustainable Aviation. (2011). Creating a Sustainable Framework for UK Aviation. Retrieved March, 2018, from http://www.sustainableaviation.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/SA_DfT-Scoping-Document_FINAL-October-2011.pdf.
  38. Usborne, S. (2017). Just Do It: The Experience Economy and How We Turned Our Backs on ‘Stuff’. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/business/2017/may/13/just-do-it-the-experience-economy-and-how-we-turned-our-backs-on-stuff.
  39. Veblen, T. (1899). The Theory of the Leisure Class: An Economic Study in the Evolution of Institutions. Macmillan.Google Scholar
  40. Wainwright, J., & Mann, G. (2018). Climate Leviathan: A Political Theory of Our Planetary Future. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  41. Wallman, J. (2015). Stuffocation: Why We’ve Had Enough of Stuff and Need Experience More than Ever. Spiegel & Grau.Google Scholar
  42. Žižek, S. (1989). The Sublime Object of Ideology. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  43. Žižek, S. (2008). Violence: Six Sideways Reflections. London: Verso.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of PlymouthPlymouthUK

Personalised recommendations