Green Nanotechnology for the Environment and Sustainable Development

  • Samreen Heena KhanEmail author
Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 38)


With the increase in the global human population, the adequate supply of resources has become limited. The development of pollution-free technologies for environmental remediation and clean energy supplies for the sustainable growth of human society is the need of the hour. Nanotechnology can have a substantial impact on developing ‘cleaner’ and ‘greener’ technologies with significant health and environmental benefits. The applications of nanotechnology are being explored for their potential to provide solutions to manage, mitigate, and clean-up air, water, and land pollution, as well as to improve the performance of conventional technologies used in environmental clean-up. Green nanotechnology is the branch of nanotechnology that envisages sustainability through various applications.

The present chapter deals with the topics related to green nanotechnology for sustainable development. The applications of nanotechnology used to solve environmental issues by reducing the overall energy consumption during the synthesis and manufacturing process, the ability to recycle products after use, and to develop and use eco-friendly materials were summarized in this chapter. The sections have been divided according to the applications of green nanotechnology. The nano-manufacturing processes, green synthesis of nanomaterials, and the treatment of wastewater with reference to the principles of green chemistry have been discussed in detail. Currently, nanotechnology shows great promise to solve the sustainability issues, but it is impossible to overlook the adverse effects of nanomaterials on the environment and human health. In spite of the high performance and low cost of nano-remediation technology, advanced research is necessary to understand and prevent the potential adverse environmental impacts, i.e., ecosystem-wide impacts. The present chapter highlights the green chemistry principles influencing the life cycle of nano-products from design to disposal. The various applications and limitations of green nanotechnology have been discussed in the light of green chemistry principles for sustainability.


Green Nanotechnology Photocatalysis Remediation Sustainable Nanomaterials 


  1. Adeleye AS, Conway JR, Garner K, Huang Y, Su Y, Keller AA (2016) Engineered nanomaterials for water treatment and remediation: costs, benefits, and applicability. Chem Eng J 286:640–662. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adriano DC, Wenzel WW, Vangronsveld J, Bolan NS (2004) Role of assisted natural remediation in environmental cleanup. Geoderma 122(2–4):121–142. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmed S, Rasul MG, Brown R, Hashib MA (2011) Influence of parameters on the heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of pesticides and phenolic contaminants in wastewater: a short review. J Environ Manag 92(3):311–330. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Albrecht MA, Evans CW, Raston CL (2006) Green chemistry and the health implications of nanoparticles. Green Chem 8(5):417–432. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Allen DT, Shonnard DR (2001) Green engineering: environmentally conscious design of chemical processes. Pearson Education, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. Alqadami AA, Naushad M, Abdalla MA et al (2016) Synthesis and characterization of Fe 3 O 4 @TSC nanocomposite: highly efficient removal of toxic metal ions from aqueous medium. RSC Adv 6:22679–22689. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Amin MT, Alazba AA, Manzoor U (2014) A review of the removal of pollutants from water/wastewater using different types of nanomaterials. Adv Mater Sci Eng 2014:1–24. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anastas P, Eghbali N (2010) Green chemistry: principles and practice. Chem Soc Rev 39(1):301–312. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Anastas PT, Kirchhoff MM (2002) Origins, current status, and future challenges of green chemistry. Acc Chem Res 35(9):686–694. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Anastas PT, Warner JC (1998a) Green: chemistry. Frontiers. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Anastas PT, Warner JC (1998b) Principles of green chemistry. In: Green chemistry: theory and practice. Oxford University Press, New York, p 29Google Scholar
  12. Anastas PT, Warner JC (2000) Green chemistry: theory and practice, vol 30. Oxford university press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  13. Anastas PT, Kirchhoff MM, Williamson TC (2001) Catalysis as a foundational pillar of green chemistry. Appl Catal A Gen 221(1–2):3–13. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Anderson AA, Brossard D, Scheufele DA (2010) The changing information environment for nanotechnology: online audiences and content. J Nanopart Res 12(4):1083–1094. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Andraos J (2005) Unification of reaction metrics for green chemistry: applications to reaction analysis. Org Process Res Dev 9(2):149–163. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Andreescu S, Njagi J, Ispas C, Ravalli MT (2009) JEM spotlight: applications of advanced nanomaterials for environmental monitoring. J Environ Monit 11(1):27–40. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Asmatulu E, Twomey J, Overcash M (2012) Life cycle and nano-products: end-of-life assessment. J Nanopart Res 14(3):720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Awual MR, Eldesoky GE, Yaita T et al (2015) Schiff based ligand containing nano-composite adsorbent for optical copper(II) ions removal from aqueous solutions. Chem Eng J 279:639–647. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Baker A, Elliott S, Lead JR (2007) Effects of filtration and pH perturbation on freshwater organic matter fluorescence. Chemosphere 67(10):2035–2043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bardos P, Bone B, Černík M, Elliott DW, Jones S, Merly C (2015) Nanoremediation and international environmental restoration markets. Remediat J 25(2):83–94. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Baruah A, Lourembam D, Baruah S (2017) Nanotechnology for water purification. ADBU J Eng Technol 6(1):00610605Google Scholar
  22. Berekaa MM (2016) Nanotechnology in wastewater treatment; influence of nanomaterials on microbial systems. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 5(1):713–726. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bergeson LL, Auerbach B (2004, April 14) The environmental regulatory implications of nanotechnology. In: BNA Daily Environment Reporter, pp B-1–B-2Google Scholar
  24. Bhattacharya S, Saha I, Mukhopadhyay A, Chattopadhyay D, Chand U (2013) Role of nanotechnology in water treatment and purification: potential applications and implications. Int J Chem Sci Technol 3(3):59–64Google Scholar
  25. Biju V, Itoh T, Anas A, Sujith A, Ishikawa M (2008) Semiconductor quantum dots and metal nanoparticles: syntheses, optical properties, and biological applications. Anal Bioanal Chem 391(7):2469–2495. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Biswas A, Bayer IS, Biris AS, Wang T, Dervishi E, Faupel F (2012) Advances in top–down and bottom–up surface nanofabrication: techniques, applications & future prospects. Adv Colloid Interf Sci 170(1–2):2–27. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Brame J, Li Q, Alvarez PJ (2011) Nanotechnology-enabled water treatment and reuse: emerging opportunities and challenges for developing countries. Trends Food Sci Technol 22(11):618–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Campelo JM, Luna D, Luque R, Marinas JM, Romero AA (2009) Sustainable preparation of supported metal nanoparticles and their applications in catalysis. ChemSusChem 2(1):18–45. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cao G (2004) Nanostructures & nanomaterials: synthesis, properties & applications. Imperial College Press, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chen X, Mao SS (2007) Titanium dioxide nanomaterials: synthesis, properties, modifications, and applications. Chem Rev 107(7):2891–2959. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chen X, Schluesener HJ (2008) Nanosilver: a nanoproduct in medical application. Toxicol Lett 176(1):1–12. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Clara M, Strenn B, Gans O, Martinez E, Kreuzinger N, Kroiss H (2005) Removal of selected pharmaceuticals, fragrances and endocrine disrupting compounds in a membrane bioreactor and conventional wastewater treatment plants. Water Res 39(19):4797–4807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Clark JH (1999) Green chemistry: challenges and opportunities. Green Chem 1(1):1–8. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Colvin VL (2003) The potential environmental impact of engineered nanomaterials. Nat Biotechnol 21(10):1166. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Constable DJ, Curzons AD, Cunningham VL (2002) Metrics to ‘green chemistry—which are the best? Green Chem 4(6):521–527. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dahl JA, Maddux BL, Hutchison JE (2007) Toward greener nanosynthesis. Chem Rev 107(6):2228–2269. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Daisy P, Saipriya K (2012) Biochemical analysis of Cassia fistula aqueous extract and phytochemically synthesized gold nanoparticles as hypoglycemic treatment for diabetes mellitus. Int J Nanomedicine 7:1189–1202. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Davis JM (2007) How to assess the risks of nanotechnology: learning from past experience. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 7(2):402–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. De Kwaadsteniet MICHELE, Botes M, Cloete TE (2011) Application of nanotechnology in antimicrobial coatings in the water industry. Nano 6(05):395–407. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Deif AM (2011) A system model for green manufacturing. J Clean Prod 19(14):1553–1559. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dhawan A, Sharma V, Parmar D (2009) Nanomaterials: a challenge for toxicologists. Nanotoxicology 3(1):1–9. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dhingra R, Naidu S, Upreti G, Sawhney R (2010) Sustainable nanotechnology: through green methods and life-cycle thinking. Sustainability 2(10):3323–3338. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Diallo M, Brinker CJ (2011) Nanotechnology for sustainability: environment, water, food, minerals, and climate. In: Nanotechnology research directions for societal needs in 2020. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 221–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Diallo MS, Fromer NA, Jhon MS (2013) Nanotechnology for sustainable development: retrospective and outlook. In: Nanotechnology for sustainable development. Springer, Cham, pp 1–16. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dornfeld D, Yuan C, Diaz N, Zhang T, Vijayaraghavan A (2013) Introduction to green manufacturing. In: Green manufacturing. Springer, Boston, pp 1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Dreher KL (2004) Health and environmental impact of nanotechnology: toxicological assessment of manufactured nanoparticles. Toxicol Sci 77(1):3–5. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Duan H, Wang D, Li Y (2015) Green chemistry for nanoparticle synthesis. Chem Soc Rev 44(16):5778–5792. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Eckelman MJ, Zimmerman JB, Anastas PT (2008) Toward green nano: E-factor analysis of several nanomaterial syntheses. J Ind Ecol 12(3):316–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ersahin ME, Ozgun H, Dereli RK, Ozturk I, Roest K, van Lier JB (2012) A review on dynamic membrane filtration: materials, applications and future perspectives. Bioresour Technol 122:196–206. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fagan R, Han C, Andersen J, Pillai S, Falaras P, Byrne A, …, Dionysiou DD (2013) Chapter green nanotechnology: development of nanomaterials for environmental and energy applications. Acs Symp Ser 1124:201–230. Google Scholar
  51. Fenoll J, Ruiz E, Flores P, Vela N, Hellín P, Navarro S (2011) Use of farming and agro-industrial wastes as versatile barriers in reducing pesticide leaching through soil columns. J Hazard Mater 187(1–3):206–212. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Fischer HC, Chan WC (2007) Nanotoxicity: the growing need for in vivo study. Curr Opin Biotechnol 18(6):565–571. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Fleischer T, Grunwald A (2008) Making nanotechnology developments sustainable. A role for technology assessment? J Clean Prod 16(8–9):889–898. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Fujihara K, Kumar A, Jose R, Ramakrishna S, Uchida S (2007) Spray deposition of electrospun TiO2 nanorods for dye-sensitized solar cell. Nanotechnology 18(36):365709. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Galeazzo A, Furlan A, Vinelli A (2014) Lean and green in action: interdependencies and performance of pollution prevention projects. J Clean Prod 85:191–200. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gawande MB, Branco PS, Varma RS (2013) Nano-magnetite (Fe3O4) as a support for recyclable catalysts in the development of sustainable methodologies. Chem Soc Rev 42(8):3371–3393. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gehrke I, Geiser A, Somborn-Schulz A (2015) Innovations in nanotechnology for water treatment. Nanotechnol Sci Appl 8:1. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gil-Díaz M, Diez-Pascual S, González A, Alonso J, Rodríguez-Valdés E, Gallego JR, Lobo MC (2016) A nanoremediation strategy for the recovery of an As-polluted soil. Chemosphere 149:137–145. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gladysz JA (2001) Recoverable catalysts. Ultimate goals, criteria of evaluation, and the green chemistry interface. Pure Appl Chem 73(8):1319–1324. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Glavič P, Lukman R (2007) Review of sustainability terms and their definitions. J Clean Prod 15(18):1875–1885. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Göbel A, McArdell CS, Joss A, Siegrist H, Giger W (2007) Fate of sulfonamides, macrolides, and trimethoprim in different wastewater treatment technologies. Sci Total Environ 372(2–3):361–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Guo KW (2012) Green nanotechnology of trends in future energy: a review. Int J Energy Res 36(1):1–17. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hashimoto K, Irie H, Fujishima A (2005) TiO2 photocatalysis: a historical overview and future prospects. Jpn J Appl Phys 44(12R):8269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hoet PH, Nemmar A, Nemery B (2004) Health impact of nanomaterials? Nat Biotechnol 22(1):19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hood E (2004) Nanotechnology: looking as we leap. Environ Health Perspect 112(13):A740. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Horizon (2020) Work programme 2014–2015. 5. Leadership in enabling and industrial technologies. II. Nanotechnologies, Advanced materials, biotechnology and advanced manufacturing and processing. Available from:
  67. Hutchison JE (2008) Greener nanoscience: a proactive approach to advancing applications and reducing implications of nanotechnology. ACS Nano 2(3):395–402. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hutchison JE (2016) The road to sustainable nanotechnology: challenges, progress and opportunities. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 4(11):5907–5914. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Iavicoli I, Leso V, Ricciardi W, Hodson LL, Hoover MD (2014) Opportunities and challenges of nanotechnology in the green economy. Environ Health 13(1):78. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ikhmayies SJ (2014) Characterization of nanomaterials. JOM 66(1):28–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Iravani S (2011) Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using plants. Green Chem 13(10):2638–2650. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Jahangirian H, Lemraski EG, Webster TJ, Rafiee-Moghaddam R, Abdollahi Y (2017) A review of drug delivery systems based on nanotechnology and green chemistry: green nanomedicine. Int J Nanomedicine 12:2957. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Jain D (2009) Synthesis of plant-mediated silver nanoparticles using papaya fruit extract and evaluation of their anti-microbial activities. Dig J Nanomater Biostruct 4:557–563Google Scholar
  74. Jayaseelan C (2011) Synthesis of pediculocidal and larvicidal silver nanoparticles by leaf extract from heart leaf moon seed plant Tinospora cordifolia Miers. Parasitol Res 109:185–194. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kalidindi SB, Jagirdar BR (2012) Nanocatalysis and prospects of green chemistry. ChemSusChem 5(1):65–75. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Karimi H, Rahimpour A, Shirzad Kebria MR (2016) Pesticides removal from water using modified piperazine-based nanofiltration (NF) membranes. Desalin Water Treat 57(52):24844–24854. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Karn BP, Bergeson LL (2009) Green nanotechnology: straddling promise and uncertainty. Nat Resour Environ 24(2):9–23Google Scholar
  78. Kaur J, Punia S, Kumar K (2017) Need for the advanced Technologies for Wastewater Treatment. In: Advances in Environmental Biotechnology. Springer, Singapore, pp 39–52. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kaviya S (2011) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Citrus sinensis peel extract and its antibacterial activity. Spectrochim Acta A 79:594–598. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Khan SH, Fulekar MH, Pathak B (2015) Nanotoxicology-health and environmental impacts: A review. J Environ Nanotechnol 4(3):55–72. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Khan SH, Pathak B, Fulekar MH (2018) Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic degradation of chlorpyrifos by novel Fe: ZnO nanocomposite material. Nanotechnol Environ Eng 3(1):13. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Khin MM, Nair AS, Babu VJ, Murugan R, Ramakrishna S (2012) A review on nanomaterials for environmental remediation. Energy Environ Sci 5(8):8075–8109. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Khulbe KC, Feng CY, Matsuura T, Ismail AF (2012) Progresses in the membrane and advanced oxidation processes for water treatment. Membrane Water Treatment 3(3):181–200. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kim DH, Shon HK, Sharma G, Cho J (2011) Charge effect of natural organic matter for ultrafiltration and nanofiltration membranes. J Ind Eng Chem 17(1):109–113. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Klabunde KJ, Richards RM (eds) (2009) Nanoscale materials in chemistry. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  86. Klaine SJ, Alvarez PJ, Batley GE, Fernandes TF, Handy RD, Lyon DY, …, Lead JR (2008) Nanomaterials in the environment: behavior, fate, bioavailability, and effects. Environ Toxicol Chem 27(9):1825–1851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Kora AJ, Sashidhar RB, Arunachalam J (2012) Aqueous extract of gum olibanum (Boswellia serrata): a reductant and stabilizer for the biosynthesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles. Process Biochem 47:1516–1520. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Krishnan N, Boyd S, Somani A, Raoux S, Clark D, Dornfeld D (2008) A hybrid life cycle inventory of nano-scale semiconductor manufacturing. Environ Sci Technol 42(8):3069–3075. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Krishnaraj C et al (2010) Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Acalypha indica leaf extracts and its antibacterial activity against water borne pathogens. Colloids Surf B 76:50–56. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Krishnaswamy K, Orsat V (2017) Sustainable delivery systems through green nanotechnology. In: Nano-and microscale drug delivery systems. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 17–32. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Kumar A, Kumar A, Sharma G et al (2017) Sustainable nano-hybrids of magnetic biochar supported g-C3N4/FeVO4for solar powered degradation of noxious pollutants- synergism of adsorption, photocatalysis & photo-ozonation. J Clean Prod 165:431–451. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Lazaro A, Quercia G, Brouwers HJH, Geus JW (2013) Synthesis of a green nano-silica material using beneficiated waste dunites and its application in concrete. World J Nano Sci Eng 3(3):41–51. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Leach RK, Blunt L, Chetwynd DG, Yacoot A (2002) Nanoscience advances in the UK in support of nanotechnology. Int J Nanosci 1(02):123–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Liang M, Guo LH (2009) Application of nanomaterials in environmental analysis and monitoring. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 9(4):2283–2289. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Linkov I, Bates ME, Canis LJ, Seager TP, Keisler JM (2011) A decision-directed approach for prioritizing research into the impact of nanomaterials on the environment and human health. Nat Nanotechnol 6(12):784. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Lu Y, Ozcan S (2015) Green nanomaterials: on track for a sustainable future. Nano Today 10(4):417–420. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Lue JT (2007) Physical properties of nanomaterials. Encycl Nanosci Nanotechnol 10(1):1–46Google Scholar
  98. Maensiri S et al (2008) Indium oxide (In2O3) nanoparticles using Aloe vera plant extract: synthesis and optical properties. J Optoelectron Adv Mater 10:161–165Google Scholar
  99. Martin AL, Li B, Gillies ER (2008) Surface functionalization of nanomaterials with dendritic groups: toward enhanced binding to biological targets. J Am Chem Soc 131(2):734–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Makarov VV, Love AJ, Sinitsyna OV, Makarova SS, Yaminsky IV, Taliansky ME, Kalinina NO (2014) “Green” nanotechnologies: synthesis of metal nanoparticles using plants. Acta Nat (англоязычная версия) 6(20):35–44Google Scholar
  101. Maksimović M, Omanović-Mikličanin E (2017) Towards green nanotechnology: maximizing benefits and minimizing harm. In: CMBEBIH 2017. Springer, Singapore, pp 164–170. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Martin CR (1994) Nanomaterials: a membrane-based synthetic approach. Science 266(5193):1961–1966. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Matos J, García A, Poon PS (2010) Environmental green chemistry applications of nanoporous carbons. J Mater Sci 45(18):4934–4944. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Maynard A (2006) Nanotechnology consumer products. In: Ventory; project on emerging nanotechnologies, Woodrow Wilson International Center for ScholarsGoogle Scholar
  105. Maynard AD, Aitken RJ, Butz T, Colvin V, Donaldson K, Oberdörster G, …, Tinkle SS (2006) Safe handling of nanotechnology. Nature 444(7117):267. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Milburn C (2012) Greener on the other side: science fiction and the problem of green nanotechnology. Configurations 20(1):53–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Min BK, Friend CM (2007) Heterogeneous gold-based catalysis for green chemistry: low-temperature CO oxidation and propene oxidation. Chem Rev 107(6):2709–2724. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Mishra B, Khushalani D (2013) Nanomaterial-based Photocatalysts. In: Nanocatalysis synthesis and applications. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 469–493. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Montone A, Aurora A, Di Girolamo G (2015) Characterization of nanomaterials. Energia Ambiente e Innovazione 61(1–2):93–104Google Scholar
  110. MubarakAli D (2011) Plant extract mediated synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles and its antibacterial activity against clinically isolated pathogens. Colloids Surf B 85:360–365. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Mulvihill MJ, Beach ES, Zimmerman JB, Anastas PT (2011) Green chemistry and green engineering: a framework for sustainable technology development. Annu Rev Environ Resour 36:271–293. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Musee N (2011) Nanotechnology risk assessment from a waste management perspective: are the current tools adequate? Hum Exp Toxicol 30(8):820–835. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Nagati VB et al (2012) Green synthesis of plant-mediated silver nanoparticles using Withania somnifera leaf extract and evaluation of their anti microbial activity. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2:1–5Google Scholar
  114. Naidu S, Sawhney R, Li X (2008) A methodology for evaluation and selection of nanoparticle manufacturing processes based on sustainability metrics. Environ Sci Technol 42(17):6697–6702. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Nakagawa Y, Kageyama H, Oaki Y, Imai H (2013) Direction control of oriented self-assembly for 1D, 2D, and 3D microarrays of anisotropic rectangular nanoblocks. J Am Chem Soc 136(10):3716–3719. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Nath D, Banerjee P (2013) Green nanotechnology–a new hope for medical biology. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 36(3):997–1014. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Naushad M, AL-Othman ZA, Islam M (2013) Adsorption of cadmium ion using a new composite cation-exchanger polyaniline Sn(IV) silicate: kinetics, thermodynamic and isotherm studies. Int J Environ Sci Technol 10:567–578. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Naushad M, AL-Othman ZA, Alam MM et al (2015) Synthesis of sodium dodecyl sulfate-supported nanocomposite cation exchanger: removal and recovery of Cu2+ from synthetic, pharmaceutical and alloy samples. J Iran Chem Soc 12:1677–1686. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Naushad M, Ansari AA, AL-Othman ZA, Mittal J (2016) Synthesis and characterization of YVO 4:Eu 3+ nanoparticles: kinetics and isotherm studies for the removal of Cd 2+ metal ion. Desalin Water Treat 57:2081–2088. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Nel A, Xia T, Mädler L, Li N (2006) Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel. Science 311(5761):622–627. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Niraimathi KL (2012) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Alternanthera sessilis (Linn.) extract and their antimicrobial, antioxidant activities. Colloids Surf B 88:34–39Google Scholar
  122. Nune SK, Chanda N, Shukla R, Katti K, Kulkarni RR, Thilakavathy S, …, Katti KV (2009) Green nanotechnology from tea: phytochemicals in tea as building blocks for the production of biocompatible gold nanoparticles. J Mater Chem 19(19):2912–2920. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. OECD (2011a) Towards green growth. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. OECD (2011c) Fostering nanotechnology to address global challenges: water. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris. Google Scholar
  125. Oller I, Malato S, Sánchez-Pérez J (2011) Combination of advanced oxidation processes and biological treatments for wastewater decontamination—a review. Sci Total Environ 409(20):4141–4166. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Oturan MA, Aaron JJ (2014) Advanced oxidation processes in water/wastewater treatment: principles and applications. A review. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 44(23):2577–2641. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Owen R, Depledge M (2005) Nanotechnology and the environment: risks and rewards. Mar Pollut Bull 50(6):609. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Polshettiwar V, Varma RS (2010) Green chemistry by nano-catalysis. Green Chem 12(5):743–754. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Qu X, Alvarez PJ, Li Q (2013) Applications of nanotechnology in water and wastewater treatment. Water Res 47(12):3931–3946. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Ramsurn H, Gupta RB (2013) Nanotechnology in solar and biofuels. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 1(7):779–797. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Ramya M, Subapriya MS (2012) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Int J Pharm Med Biol Sci 1(1):54–61Google Scholar
  132. Ran N, Zhao L, Chen Z, Tao J (2008) Recent applications of biocatalysis in developing green chemistry for chemical synthesis at the industrial scale. Green Chem 10(4):361–372. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Rao CNR, Müller A, Cheetham AK (eds) (2006) The chemistry of nanomaterials: synthesis, properties and applications. Wiley, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  134. Raveendran P, Fu J, Wallen SL (2003) Completely “green” synthesis and stabilization of metal nanoparticles. J Am Chem Soc 125(46):13940–13941. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Rawle AF (2017) Characterization of nanomaterials. In: Metrology and standardization of nanotechnology: protocols and industrial innovations. Wiley, Weinheim, pp 129–150. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Riungu NJ et al (2012, Oct) Removal of pesticides from water by Nanofiltration. J Eng Comput Appl Sci, [Sl] 1(1):50–60. ISSN 2319-5606Google Scholar
  137. Rusinko C (2007) Green manufacturing: an evaluation of environmentally sustainable manufacturing practices and their impact on competitive outcomes. IEEE Trans Eng Manag 54(3):445–454. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Sangeetha G, Rajeshwari S, Venckatesh R (2011) Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles by aloe barbadensis miller leaf extract: structure and optical properties. Mater Res Bull 46:2560–2566. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Sathishkumar M (2009) Cinnamon zeylanicum bark extract and powder mediated green synthesis of nano-crystalline silver particles and its bactericidal activity. Colloids Surf B 73:332–338. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Satyavani K (2011) Biomedical potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized from calli cells of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. J Nanobiotechnol 9:43–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Savolainen K, Alenius H, Norppa H, Pylkkänen L, Tuomi T, Kasper G (2010) Risk assessment of engineered nanomaterials and nanotechnologies—a review. Toxicology 269(2–3):92–104. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Schmidt K (2007) Green nanotechnology: it’s easier than you think. Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  143. Schulte PA, McKernan LT, Heidel DS, Okun AH, Dotson GS, Lentz TJ, …, Branche CM (2013) Occupational safety and health, green chemistry, and sustainability: a review of areas of convergence. Environ Health 12(1):31.
  144. Schwarz AE (2009) Green dreams of reason. Green nanotechnology between visions of excess and control. NanoEthics 3(2):109–118. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Science Policy Council, U. S. E. P. A. “U.S. Environmental Protection Agency External Review Draft, Nanotechnology White Paper,” 2005Google Scholar
  146. Scott K, Hughes R (2012) Industrial membrane separation technology. Springer Science & Business Media, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  147. Seil JT, Webster TJ (2012) Antimicrobial applications of nanotechnology: methods and literature. Int J Nanomedicine 7:2767. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Şengül H, Theis TL, Ghosh S (2008) Toward sustainable nanoproducts: an overview of nanomanufacturing methods. J Ind Ecol 12(3):329–359. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Shapira P, Youtie J (2015) The economic contributions of nanotechnology to green and sustainable growth. In: Green processes for nanotechnology. Springer, Cham, pp 409–434. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Sharma SK, Sanghi R (eds) (2012) Advances in water treatment and pollution prevention. Springer Science & Business Media, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  151. Sheldon RA (2008) E factors, green chemistry, and catalysis: an odyssey. Chem Commun 29:3352–3365. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Sheldon RA, Arends I, Hanefeld U (2007) Green chemistry and catalysis. Wiley, Weinheim. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Shon HK, Vigneswaran S, Aim RB, Ngo HH, Kim IS, Cho J (2005) Influence of flocculation and adsorption as pretreatment on the fouling of ultrafiltration and nanofiltration membranes: application with biologically treated sewage effluent. Environ Sci Technol 39(10):3864–3871. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Singh A, Jain D, Upadhyay MK, Khandelwal N, Verma HN (2010) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Argemone mexicana leaf extract and evaluation of their antimicrobial activities. Dig J Nanomater Biostruct 5(2):483–489Google Scholar
  155. Singh S, Saikia JP, Buragohain AK (2013) A novel ‘green’ synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles (SNP) using Dillenia indica fruit extract. Colloids Surf B 102:83–85. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Smith GB (2011) Green nanotechnology. In: Nanostructured thin films IV, vol 8104. International Society for Optics and Photonics, p 810402.
  157. Smol JP, Stoermer EF (eds) (2010) The diatoms: applications for the environmental and earth sciences. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  158. Som C, Berges M, Chaudhry Q, Dusinska M, Fernandes TF, Olsen SI, Nowack B (2010) The importance of life cycle concepts for the development of safe nanoproducts. Toxicology 269(2–3):160–169. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Song JY, Kim BS (2009) Biological synthesis of metal nanoparticles. In: Biocatalysis and agricultural biotechnology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 399–407. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Stasinakis AS (2008) Use of selected advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for wastewater treatment–a mini review. Global NEST J 10(3):376–385Google Scholar
  161. Steinfeldt M (2014) Life-cycle assessment of nanotechnology-based applications. In: Nanotechnology for sustainable manufacturing. Springer, New York, pp 263–284. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Strathmann H, Giorno L, Drioli E (2011) Introduction to membrane science and technology, vol 544. Wiley-VCH, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  163. Sukirtha R (2012) Cytotoxic effect of Green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Melia azedarach against in vitro HeLa cell lines and lymphoma mice model. Process Biochem 47:273–279. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Suriyakalaa U (2013) Hepatocurative activity of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles fabricated using Andrographis paniculata. Colloids Surf B 102:189–194. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Swaminathan M, Muruganandham M, Sillanpaa M (2013) Advanced oxidation processes for wastewater treatment. Int J Photoenergy 2013:683682. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Tang SL, Smith RL, Poliakoff M (2005) Principles of green chemistry: productively. Green Chem 7(11):761–762. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Tennakone K, Kumara GRRA, Kumarasinghe AR, Wijayantha KGU, Sirimanne PM (1995) A dye-sensitized nano-porous solid-state photovoltaic cell. Semicond Sci Technol 10(12):1689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Theron J, Walker JA, Cloete TE (2008) Nanotechnology and water treatment: applications and emerging opportunities. Crit Rev Microbiol 34(1):43–69. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Tiwari DK, Behari J, Sen P (2008) Application of nanoparticles in waste water treatment. World Appl Sci J 3:417–433Google Scholar
  170. Tobiszewski M, Mechlińska A, Namieśnik J (2010) Green analytical chemistry—theory and practice. Chem Soc Rev 39(8):2869–2878. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Tratnyek PG, Johnson RL (2006) Nanotechnologies for environmental cleanup. Nano Today 1(2):44–48. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Tripathy A (2010) Process variables in biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves. J Nanopart Res 12:237–246. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Vankar PS, Bajpai D (2010) Preparation of gold nanoparticles from Mirabilis jalapa flowers. Indian J Biochem Biophys 47:157–160Google Scholar
  174. Varma RS (2014) Journey on greener pathways: from the use of alternate energy inputs and benign reaction media to sustainable applications of nano-catalysts in the synthesis and environmental remediation. Green Chem 16(4):2027–2041. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Vigneshwaran N, Nachane RP, Balasubramanya RH, Varadarajan PV (2006) A novel one-pot ‘green’synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles using soluble starch. Carbohydr Res 341(12):2012–2018. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Vijayakumar M (2013) Biosynthesis, characterisation and anti-bacterial effect of plant-mediated silver nanoparticles using Artemisia nilagirica. Ind Crop Prod 41(2013):235–240. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Virkutyte J, Varma RS (2013) Green synthesis of nanomaterials: environmental aspects. In: Sustainable nanotechnology and the environment: advances and achievements, vol 1124. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 11–39. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Wang X, Zhi L, Müllen K (2008) Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. Nano Lett 8(1):323–327. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Wang X, Li X, Liu D, Song S, Zhang H (2012) Green synthesis of Pt/CeO2/graphene hybrid nanomaterials with remarkably enhanced electrocatalytic properties. Chem Commun 48(23):2885–2887. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Wei Guo K (2011) Green nanotechnology of trends in future energy. Recent Pat Nanotechnol 5(2):76–88. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. West JL, Halas NJ (2000) Applications of nanotechnology to biotechnology: commentary. Curr Opin Biotechnol 11(2):215–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Xu P, Zeng GM, Huang DL, Feng CL, Hu S, Zhao MH, …, Liu ZF (2012) Use of iron oxide nanomaterials in wastewater treatment: a review. Sci Total Environ 424:1–10. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Yadav TP, Yadav RM, Singh DP (2012) Mechanical milling: a top down approach for the synthesis of nanomaterials and nanocomposites. Nanosci Nanotechnol 2(3):22–48. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Yangali-Quintanilla V, Li Z, Valladares R, Li Q, Amy G (2011) Indirect desalination of Red Sea water with forward osmosis and low pressure reverse osmosis for water reuse. Desalination 280(1–3):160–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Yoshida JI, Kim H, Nagaki A (2011) Green and sustainable chemical synthesis using flow microreactors. ChemSusChem 4(3):331–340. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Zahir AA, Rahuman AA (2012) Evaluation of different extracts and synthesized silver nanoparticles from leaves of Euphorbia prostrate against the plant Haemaphysalis bispinosa and Hippobosca maculate. Vet Parasitol 187:511–520. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Zhang WX (2003) Nanoscale iron particles for environmental remediation: an overview. J Nanopart Res 5(3–4):323–332. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Nano SciencesCentral University of GujaratGandhinagarIndia

Personalised recommendations