Titania–Montmorillonite for the Photocatalytic Removal of Contaminants from Water: Adsorb & Shuttle Process

  • Ridha Djellabi
  • Mohamed Fouzi Ghorab
  • Abdelaziz Smara
  • Claudia Letizia Bianchi
  • Giuseppina Cerrato
  • Xu Zhao
  • Bo Yang
Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 38)


Recently, TiO2–Montmorillonite-based composites have attracted a great deal of attention as efficient photocatalysts for the degradation/reduction of organic contaminants and heavy metals in waters and wastewaters. It can be claimed that the most popular benefits of using TiO2–Montmorillonite photocatalysts are an enhancement in the photocatalytic removal of contaminants due to their high adsorption capacity, high photocatalytic activity of nanoscaled TiO2 deposited on Montmorillonite surface and low costs. Otherwise, the use of naked nanoscaled TiO2 is not recommended because of its low adsorption ability, fast agglomeration in water and due to the issue of recovery of such small particles from water. Differently from naked TiO2, the photocatalytic removal of contaminants by TiO2–Montmorillonite is enhanced through the mechanism so-called Adsorb & Shuttle (A&S) which is based on the use of highly adsorbing domains to increase the quantity of contaminants near TiO2 photocatalytic sites. Adsorb & Shuttle process can be affected by TiO2–Montmorillonite characteristics (i.e. TiO2 loading, surface area, pore size and degree of TiO2 crystallinity) as well as the type of contaminant. In this chapter, the following points will be highlighted: (i) mechanisms of TiO2 photocatalysis for the removal of organic contaminants and heavy metals, (ii) recent progress on synthesis of TiO2–Montmorillonite photocatalysts via different methods and (iii) recent discussions regarding the photocatalytic removal of contaminants by TiO2–Montmorillonite composites.


TiO2–Montmorillonite Photocatalysis Adsorb & Shuttle Water remediation Organic contaminants Heavy metals 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ridha Djellabi
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Mohamed Fouzi Ghorab
    • 3
  • Abdelaziz Smara
    • 3
  • Claudia Letizia Bianchi
    • 4
  • Giuseppina Cerrato
    • 5
  • Xu Zhao
    • 1
  • Bo Yang
    • 2
  1. 1.Research Center for Eco-Environmental SciencesChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Chemistry and Environmental EngineeringShenzhen UniversityShenzhenPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Laboratory of Water Treatment and Valorization of Industrial Wastes, Chemistry Department, Faculty of SciencesBadji-Mokhtar UniversityAnnabaAlgeria
  4. 4.Università degli Studi di Milano, Dip. Chimica and INSTM-UdR MilanoMilanItaly
  5. 5.Università degli Studi di Torino, Dipartimento di Chimica and NIS Interdepartmental Centre and Consorzio INSTM-UdRTorinoItaly

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