Injection-Locking Techniques for Harmonic Oscillators
This chapter explores the factors that affect the lock range of harmonic oscillators and the techniques that increase the lock range of harmonic oscillators. Our focus is on injection-locked frequency dividers where injection-locked harmonic oscillators are mostly encountered. The chapter further investigates the dependence of the lock range of harmonic oscillators on injection signaling. Specifically, we investigate the lock range of harmonic oscillators with two unitone injections injected into two symmetrical locations of the oscillators and the relation between the lock range and the phase of the injection signals. The gated-pumped and drain-pumped nonlinear characteristics of MOS transistors are studied. Various techniques to increase the lock range of harmonic oscillators including inductor series-peaking, transformer series-peaking, inductor shunt-peaking, current-reuse direct injection, quality factor reduction, resistor feedback, second harmonic extraction, transformer feedback, and dual injections are studied.
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