Hyperparathyroid Disorders

  • Qaisar Hussain Siraj


Hypercalcaemia, an excess of serum calcium, has deleterious effects on multiple body systems giving rise to symptoms and signs affecting the skeletal, renal, gastrointestinal, neuromuscular, and cardiovascular systems. Increased production of parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the commonest cause of hypercalcaemia. Hyperparathyroidism is classified into primary, secondary, and tertiary forms. Primary hyperparathyroidism can be genetic but is mostly due to sporadic causes as a result of parathyroid adenoma, hyperplasia, or very rarely parathyroid carcinoma.


Hypercalcaemia Hyperparathyroidism Parathyroid adenoma Parathyroid hyperplasia Calcium Phosphorus Parathyroid hormone Parathyroid hormone-related protein Calcitriol Calcium-sensing receptor Calcium Hypocalcemia Hypercalcaemia Osteoblasts Osteoclasts Kidney reabsorption Intestinal absorption Chronic renal failure Osteitis fibrosa cystica MEN1 MEN2a Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia Hyperphosphataemia PTH-independent hypercalcaemia Humoral hypercalcaemia of malignancy Local osteolytic hypercalcaemia Parathyroid hormone Parathyroid neoplasms Primary hyperparathyroidism Hyperphosphatemia Osteomalacia Secondary hyperparathyroidism Jaw neoplasms Ossifying fibroma 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qaisar Hussain Siraj
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Nuclear MedicineFarwaniya HospitalKuwaitKuwait

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