# Let a Non-barking Watchdog Bite: Cliptographic Signatures with an Offline Watchdog

## Abstract

We study how to construct secure digital signature schemes in the presence of kleptographic attacks. Our work utilizes an offline watchdog to clip the power of subversions via only one-time black-box testing of the implementation. Previous results essentially rely on an online watchdog which requires the collection of all communicating transcripts (or active re-randomization of messages).

We first give a simple but generic construction, without random oracles, in the partial-subversion model in which key generation and signing algorithms can be subverted. Then, we give the first digital signature scheme in the complete-subversion model in which all cryptographic algorithms can be subverted. This construction is based on the full-domain hash. Along the way, we enhance the recent result of Russell *et al.* (CRYPTO 2018) about correcting a subverted random oracle.

## Keywords

Signatures Subversion resilience Offline watchdog## Supplementary material

## References

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